African  American  Church
- O P E N   L E T T E R -


Global Missions Reports From African American Churches
Link to this Web Site

~ P U R P O S E    O F    T H I S    W E B    S I T E ~


An "International Town Well" for Black Churches to Connect -- Communicating
Inspirational Stories and Sharing Creative Resources for Global Missions.

"Some Motivate to Mobilize. Why not Mobilize to Motivate?"
                                                                                                                             -- Quote from Rev. Phillip Nelson, SIM


Ideas For Local Churches Interested in Intercultural Missions

- With Annotated Bibliography Below -

    Thank you for taking the time to check out this web site. If you have accessed this as the first page, feel free to visit the main website after you have finished reading the contents of this page -- -- Also, I do hope that you will email us with your experiences in global missions.

   It is my heartfelt prayer that this web site can be an encouragement to hundreds of churches. It seems like the Holy Spirit is stirring many churches to move more intentionally toward actively participating in intercultural missions. Writing checks to help missions is wonderful and a valid use of funds, but it is truly rewarding when we develop face-to-face, heart-to-heart relationships that last a lifetime.

   What if every church touched by this web site gave the opportunity for every member to go out on a short-term mission trip?

   "Some pray, some give, some go" is a common response and this statement contains a measure of truth. It is my dream that everyone (who is physically able) can experience at least one short-term mission trip in his or her lifetime, regardless of age. It's a life-changing experience!

   My philosophy on missions has been shaped by intensive study in the Word, prayer, travels around the world and a simple determination to obey the simultaneous vision outlined in Acts 1:8 -- "Jerusalem, Judea and Samaria (town/city, county, State/Province, region) and the uttermost part of the world."

    Black Christian News Network

   One of the things I avoid like the plague is the somewhat typical ugly American approach. Even though we may not be conscious of it, we may project this attitude -- "We're rich, you're poor. We're strong, you're weak." It's this type of paternalistic, patronizing attitude that I reject. But it can so easily and almost unconsciously creep into our mindset regarding intercultural missions. This type of mindset can even creep into our North American outreaches -- suburban church reaching out to urban church. I have had to confront this thinking in my own heart and mind.

   A short term mission occupies a wonderful niche when it comes to evangelism.  It is especially designed for people who want to get their feet wet in missions. While I thank God for short term missions, I believe that we can develop a long term partnership with an indigenous church that is based upon relationship, flexibility, integrity and mutual respect.

   When I pastored (1975-1993), we developed a model that I believe may work very well in your church. Here are some points that will illustrate the model that I have personally tested and have seen work over the years:

--   1. The developing nation church is encouraged to address the spirit/soul/body aspects of the Christian message on their own, without looking to a rich North American sugar-daddy to bail them out of their financial and structural challenges. This establishes a Christ-centered relationship vs. a need-centered relationship. And, by the way, we as Americans generally possess the need to give. It just manifests itself in a more socially-acceptable manner. The need to be needed can be a powerful intoxicant. This can be an inhibitor to building genuine relationships and will get smoked out during the process.

--   2. The North American church is encouraged to "cool their jets" -- to not foster the idea that they are going to immediately build a clinic, fix something, or dig a well. This builds patience, teachability and humility. We think we are going to give. But in the midst of the process we realize that we are receiving much more than we are giving. The church we are "ministering to" generally has a depth in Jesus we have never experienced.  We all know how this works. The first year is dedicated to developing a solid relationship with the church members. The first year may include digging a well, because sometimes excellent relationships are developed when everyone is sweating. But the most important aspect is to build a relationship where both entities are coming from the position of strength.

--   3. Two times a year can be dedicated to sending teams over to the country of choice. Perhaps a team can be sent every Spring and every Fall. Twelve years of age is the youngest person I have ever taken on a short-term mission trip. At that age it is a case-by-case situation. Some kids are more mature than others at that age. Some may say, "That kid is probably going on this trip just because of the excitement of traveling to another country." My response is that I could care less about the motivation of some who are going on the trip. I just want them to go with a team of people who want to serve the Lord. God has a way of challenging and changing lives regardless of the initial motivation for going -- even those who went with the right motivation!

   Every team will have to commit to pre-travel training and then will have debriefing for a couple of weeks after they come back to smoke out any reverse culture shock issues. Each team can present a short slide or video presentation at a Sunday morning church service so that the entire congregation feels a part of the entire mission. The goal will be to provide the opportunity for everyone to at least dream about going on one of the trips. This on-going mission will impact the fervency, passion for the lost, and the prayer life of our church. It has a way of purifying the spirit of a church like few things can. I have witnessed it up close and personal.

--   4. As a part of the church's Mission's Budget, a church can develop a scholarship plan. I do not believe in giving "freebies" to people. There has to be some character-building sweat equity. This alone helps to expand personal faith and perseverance. When I pastored we matched 50% of the actual costs of airfare, ground travel, three meals a day and lodging. All other costs were borne by the individual. For instance R/T airfare may cost $600, while lodging, food and ground travel may cost $60 a day for, let's say, 10 days. That makes a grand total of $1200 for the entire trip. The church matches the $600, which is raised by the individual. The local church's financial investment in these mission outreaches will pay dividends for years to come. And what a positive way to fight negativity, gossip and foolishness! The perfect antidote for the small-mindedness that rules some churches.

   For the youth, car washes and bake sales can be sponsored to provide avenues for them to raise funds.  This type of use of church funds makes an incalculable investment in the lives of people in our church, which will impact many for the rest of their lives. Some people haven't even ventured more than 50-100 miles from their homes in their lifetimes.

   Just the travel experience alone will open eyes and hearts. In 1869 Mark Twain said, "Travel is fatal to prejudice, bigotry and narrow-mindedness and many of our people need it sorely on those accounts. Broad, wholesome, charitable views of men and things cannot be acquired by vegetating in one little corner of the earth all one's lifetime." I agree.

--   5. Some churches are getting into a global mindset for the first time. I encourage those churches to think about going to an English-speaking country like Jamaica, Barbados or Belize. Why? Because so many more people in the congregation can feel a part of what is happening. A language barrier provides its own wonderful cross-cultural experiences, but I am thinking that a common language can provide many more ministry opportunities for more people. Try the Ladder Method:


"Out-Of-The-Box" Thinking

What if 10% of the African American churches in the United States banded together to focus primarily on Haiti?

Haiti just might become a tourist destination within the next 30 years!



1st Rung
: Develop an awareness of the need for Global Missions. Send some
                members of the congregation to a Missions Conference.
2nd Rung: Start praying for different countries around the world. Operation World
and WindoWatchman are two excellent resources.
3rd Rung: Invite "missions-minded" speakers to to your church to communicate
                 on the topic of global missions.
4th Rung: Develop the Mission, Vision, Core Values, Operating Principles of your
                church that include the Simultaneous Vision of "...both Jerusalem, Judea
                & Samaria and the uttermost part of the earth..."
5th Rung: Send a small group of leaders from the church to a country on a kind
                of a reconnaissance mission to check out the viability of the church's
                involvement in Global Missions.
6th Rung: Send your first short-term team and then see how God will expand the
                missions perspective in your church.
7th Rung: Continue to keep hearts tender toward Jesus and to keep the eternal
                perspective in clear view...


 Thank you for allowing me to parachute into your day...

   100,000 Blessings,
   Joel A. Freeman, Ph.D.


This web page is sponsored by the Return To Glory Foundation, which has developed resources (books, film, CDs, etc.),
viewed by many as tools for understanding the pain and courage of African Americans. Feel free to check it out
Return To Glory: The Powerful Stirring of the Black Man


"What could be worse than being born without sight? Being born with sight and no vision." Helen Keller

How is your church involved in Global Missions?
Communicate your story here and it will be published.
(Name of church, what you have done or are doing in global missions and the impact it has had on your congregation. Contact info.)

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or details contact:
Joel A. Freeman, Ph.D.
Box 305, Gambrills, MD 21054

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Something To Think About

As of December 2005, over 40 million people in the world are living with HIV/AIDS.
About 26 million of those infected live in sub-Saharan Africa.
In 2005, over 3 million people died from AIDS.
In 2005, 5 million people were newly infected with HIV.
Over 2 million children (under age 15) are infected with HIV, with 2000 more children newly infected each day!
More than 14 million children have lost one or both parents due to AIDS.

In an ki ji ba a ki gani ba.
Hausa proverb meaning
: If you refuse to listen, you cannot refuse to see what will happen.

Black Christian News Network


Dictionary of African Christian Biography
The Dictionary spans twenty centuries of Christian faith on the African continent,
thus counteracting the notion that Christianity in Africa is little more than the
religious accretion of 19th and 20th century European influence. (Jonathan Bonk)



Annotated Bibliography on the Black Church in America

The works listed below are provided to suggest useful resources for the study of the black church in America. These works represent a variety of religious and political viewpoints and in no way represents the complete picture. This bibliography attempts to highlight a facet of the black church that is too often ignored—its unquestioned connection to historic evangelical Protestant Christianity.

General Works

Ahlstrom, Sidney E. A Religious History of the American People. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1972.

Banks, William L. The Black Church in the U.S. Chicago: Moody Press, 1972.

Barnes, Gilbert Hobbs. The Antislavery Impulse, 1830-1844. 1933. Reprint. Gloucester, Mass.: 1957. An interesting work stressing the involvement of evangelical Christians over liberals such as Unitarian William Lloyd Garrison in the American antislavery movement.

Bentley, William H. "Bible Believers in the Black Community." In The Evangelicals: What They Believe, Who They Are, Where They Are Changing, edited by David F. Wells and John D. Woodbridge. Nashville: Abingdon, 1975.

Boyer, Horace Clarence. How Sweet the Sound: The Golden Age of Gospel. Washington, D.C.: Elliott & Clark, 1995. Boyer's book provides an introduction to the history of black gospel music.

Burgess, Stanley M., and Gary B. McGee, ed. Dictionary of Pentecostal and Charismatic Movements. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Regency Reference Library, 1988. Notes the important contributions of African Americans in the history of Pentecostalism, notably in the articles "Azusa Street Revival" (pp. 31-36); "Black Holiness-Pentecostalism" (pp. 77-84); "Church of God in Christ (CGIC)" (pp. 204-5); "Mason, Charles Harrison" (pp. 585-87), and "Seymour, William Joseph" (pp. 778-81).

Campbell, James T. Songs of Zion: The African Methodist Episcopal Church in the United States and South Africa. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998. A scholarly parallel history of the AME in the United States and its overseas branch in South Africa.

Clarke, Erskine. Wrestlin' Jacob: A Portrait of Religion in the Old South. Atlanta: John Knox Press, 1979. A discussion of white efforts at the evangelization of slaves, stressing both successes and failures, the book details the work of white preachers such as Charles Colcock Jones of Georgia.

Evans, Tony. Let's Get to Know Each Other. Nashville: Nelson, 1994. Details Tony's thoughts on a biblical basis for racial reconciliation.

Fauset, Arthur Huff. Black Gods of the Metropolis. 1944. Reprint. New York: Octagon, 1974. On black cults in Philadelphia (e.g., Father Divine), the work is a recognized standard on black cults despite its geographical limitation.

Fitts, Leroy. A History of Black Baptists. Nashville: Broadman, 1985. A useful work.

Frazier, E. Franklin. The Negro Church in America, and C. Eric Lincoln. The Black Church Since Frazier. (2 vols. in 1.) New York: Schocken Books, 1974. In an influential work, Frazier describes the central place of the church in African American life.

Galli, Mark. "Defeating the Conspiracy." Christian History, vol. 18, no. 2, 1999, pp. 12-17. Discusses the growth of the black church in the South from the beginnings of slavery to the end of the Civil War.

Handy, Robert T. "Negro Christianity and American Church Historiography." In Reinterpretations in American Church History. Edited by Jerald C. Braner. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968.

Hughes, Langston; Milton Meltzer; C. Eric Lincoln, and Jon Michael Spencer. A Pictorial History of African Americans. 6th updated ed. New York: Crown, 1995. A popular introduction to black history.

Jackson, Joseph H. A Story of Christian Activism: The History of the National Baptist Convention, U.S.A., Inc. Nashville: Townsend Press, 1980. A massive (nearly 800 pages) work. Jackson, president of the NBC from 1953 to 1982, was known as a conservative for preferring legal means to civil disobedience as the vehicle of the civil rights movement. He clashed with Martin Luther King, Jr., who in turn led a split, the Progressive National Baptists. Jackson spends only about 200 pages on the history of the convention prior to his presidency; the rest of the book is a reason for his position.

Johnson, James Weldon. God's Trombones. New York: Viking Press, 1955. A collection of poems based on black preaching that reveals something of the power of the black pulpit; Johnson was a leader in the "Harlem Renaissance" and not necessarily sympathetic to conservative Christianity, but his poems generally treat the Scripture and the old-time black preacher with respect. Johnson's preface on the role of the black preacher is particularly interesting.

Jones, Charles Edwin. Black Holiness: A Guide to the Study of Black Participation in Wesleyan Perfectionist and Glossolalic Pentecostal Movements. ATLA Bibliography Series, No. 18. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1987. An invaluable bibliographic guide.

Journal of Negro History. This important resource in African American history was founded by Carter Woodson in 1916. There are many references to specific articles from this journal in the entries that follow.

Kaplan, Sidney. The Black Presence in the Era of the American Revolution 1770-1800. New York: New York Graphic Society, 1972. See Chapter 3, "The Black Clergy" (pp. 73-108).

King, Martin Luther, Jr. Testament of Hope: Essential Writings of Martin Luther King Jr. San Francisco: Harper, 1991.

Lincoln, C. Eric, and Lawrence H. Mamiya. The Black Church in the African American Experience. Durham, N.C.: Duke Univ. Press, 1990. Probably the best available book on the subject. Pages 20-91 survey the history of the major black denominations.

Martin, Sandy D. Black Baptists and African Missions: The Origins of a Movement 1880-1915. Macon, Ga.: Mercer Univ. Press, 1989. Discusses how black American Baptists developed an interest in missions to Africa and how that interest in turn affected the views of African American Baptists.

McBeth, H. Leon. The Baptist Heritage. Nashville: Broadman, 1987. See pp. 776-90 on the black Baptists.

―――. Images of the Black Church in America." Baptist History and Heritage 16 (1981): 19-29, 40. A highly useful introductory article by a Southern Baptist historian; he surveys five influential books on the black church—The Black Church (1903) by W.E.B. Du Bois, The History of the Negro Church (1921) by Carter G. Woodson, The Negro Church in America (1964) by E. Franklin Frazier, Black Religion (1964) by Joseph Washington, and Black Theology and Black Power (1969) by James Cone—then discusses how each views the black church in America. The article is a beneficial introduction to the literature.

Montgomery, William E. Under Their Own Vine and Fig Tree: The African-American Church in the South 1865-1900. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State Univ. Press, 1993. A scholarly work on the southern black churches after the Civil War.

Murphy, Larry G.; J. Gordon Melton; and Gary L. Ward, ed. Encyclopedia of African American Religions. New York: Garland, 1993. An extremely thorough and helpful work.

Murray, Andrew E. Presbyterians and the Negro—A History. Philadelphia: Presbyterian Historical Society, 1966. A first-rate study of African American participation in American Presbyterianism

Oates, Steven B. Let the Trumpet Sound: The Life of Martin Luther King, Jr. New York: Harper and Row, 1982.

Pannell, William. "The Religious Heritage of Blacks." In The Evangelicals: What They Believe, Who They Are, Where They Are Changing, edited by David F. Wells and John D. Woodbridge. Nashville: Abingdon, 1975, pp. 96-107.

Payne, Wardell J. ed., Directory of African American Religious Bodies. Washington, D.C.: Howard Univ. Press, 1991. A helpful guide along the lines of The Yearbook of Canadian and American Churches.

Pelt, Owen D. The Story of the National Baptists. New York: Vantage Press, 1960. The long-time standard history of the largest black denomination in the United States.

Raboteau, Albert J. "The Black Experience in American Evangelicalism: The Meaning of Slavery." In The Evangelical Tradition in America, edited by Leonard Sweet. Macon, Ga.: Mercer Univ. Press, 1984, pp. 181-97.

———. A Fire in the Bones: Reflections on African-American Religious History. Boston: Beacon Press, 1995. A collection of essays by a black historian.

———. Slave Religion: The "Invisible Institution" in the Antebellum South. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1978. A standard and highly influential work.

Sanneh, Lamin, "Prelude to African Christian Independency: The Afro-American Factor in African Christianity." Harvard Theological Review 77 (1984): 1-32.

Sernett, Milton C., ed. Afro-American Religious History: A Documentary Witness. Durham, N.C.: Duke Univ. Press, 1985. A first-rate collection of original sources.

———. Black Religion and American Evangelicalism. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1975. A first-rate, balanced work on black religion before the Civil War.

———. "Black Religion and the Question of Evangelical Identity." In The Variety of American Evangelicalism, edited by Donald Dayton and Robert K. Johnson. Downer's Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 1991, pp. 135-47.

———. Bound for the Promised Land: African American Religion and the Great Migration. Durham, N.C.: Duke Univ. Press, 1997. An excellent scholarly study on the migration of African Americans from the rural South to the urban North in the 20th century and how that migration affected the black church.

Sidwell, Mark. "Black Baptist Pioneers of the South." Frontline, vol. 5, no. 4 (1995): 14-15. On the careers of George Liele, David George, and Andrew Bryan.

———. Free Indeed: Heroes of Black Christian History. Greenville, S.C.: Bob Jones Univ. Press, 1995. Written as a supplementary textbook on the junior/senior high level, the book provides and brief overview of African American church history and then provides biographical sketches of thirteen notable black preachers, including Richard Allen, Daniel Payne, and Charles Tindley.

———. "The Fruit of Freedom." Christian History vol. 18, no. 2 (1999): 38-41. Provides sketches of the careers of Phillis Wheatley, Lemuel Haynes, John Stewart, Jarena Lee, and Absalom Jones.

———. "Stonewall Jackson's Black Sunday School and the Religious Instruction of Slaves." Biblical Viewpoint vol. 28, no. 2 (1994): 88-97. Reviews the contribution of Thomas J. ("Stonewall") Jackson to the Southern movement for the religious instruction of slaves.

Skinner, Tom. Black and Free. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1970. Riveting autobiography by a black evangelist and converted gang leader from Harlem.

Smith, Edward D. Climbing Jacob's Ladder: The Rise of Black Churches in Eastern American Cities, 1740-1877. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1988. Beautifully designed and exceptionally well illustrated.

Walker, Clarence Earl. A Rock in a Weary Land: The African Methodist Episcopal Church During the Civil War and Reconstruction. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State Univ. Press, 1982.

White, Daniel, III, ed. When Black Preachers Preach. Atlanta: Torch Publications, 1994. A collection of sermons and essays by preachers.

Woodson, Carter G. The History of the Negro Church. 3rd ed. 1945. Reprint, Washington, D.C.: The Associated Publishers, 1992. The long-time standard and still very useful for pre-20th century history.

———, ed. Negro Orators and Their Orations. 1925. Reprint. New York: Russell and Russell, 1969. Among the orations are addresses by noted black preachers.

Wyatt-Brown, Bertram. Lewis Tappan and the Evangelical War Against Slavery. New York: Atheneum, 1971.

Young, Henry J. Major Black Religious Leaders, 1755-1940. Nashville: Abingdon, 1977. A series of brief sketches of the theology of some major black leaders, the author includes sketches of some orthodox figures (e.g., Richard Allen and Daniel Payne).

Sources on Specific African American Christian Leaders

John Marrant (1755-91)

Converted under the preaching of George Whitefield in Charleston around 1760, Marrant later became an early missionary to the Indians. He eventually traveled to England, where he became associated with Selina, Countess of Huntington, and the Calvinistic Methodist Connexion. That group in turn sent him to Nova Scotia to minister to a colony of blacks there as well as to the Indians.

Potkay, Adam, and Sandra Burr, ed. Black Atlantic Writers of the 18th Century. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995. Contains the most accurate available version of A Narrative of the Life of John Marrant (Marrant's brief autobiography) and a sermon Marrant preached in 1789 (pp. 67-122).

Saillant, John. "Hymnody and the Persistence of an African-American Faith in Sierra Leone." The Hymn, January 1997, pp. 8-17. In giving the background of the free colony in Sierra Leone, Saillant discusses the work of Marrant, giving more detail of his work in Canada and noting the influence of music and Calvinism in Marrant's thought.

Shields, John. "John Marrant (1755-1791)." In American Writing Before 1800, edited by James A. Levernier and Douglas R. Wilmes. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1983, 2: 944-46.

George Liele (c. 1750-1828)

Liele is known partly for helping found the Silver Bluff Baptist Church in South Carolina (across the Savannah River from Augusta, Georgia), one of the first African American congregations in the U.S. He is even more famous, however, as a pioneer missionary to Jamaica, where he helped establish the Baptists in that island.

Brooks, Walter. "The Priority of the Silver Bluff Church and Its Promoters." Journal of Negro History 7 (1922): 172-96.

Davis, John W. "George Liele and Andrew Bryan, Pioneer Negro Baptist Preachers." Journal of Negro History 3 (1918): 119-27.

Holmes, E. A. "George Liele: Negro Slavery's Prophet of Deliverance." Baptist Quarterly 20 (1964): 340-51, 361. Probably the best single source on Liele's life.

"Letters Showing the Rise and Progress of the Early Negro Churches of Georgia and the West Indies." Journal of Negro History 1 (1916): 69-92.

Rusling, G. W. "A Note on Early Negro Baptist History." Foundations 11 (1968): 362-68. A useful supplement to Holmes's article.

Sernett, Milton. "The Expatriate Option." Christian History, vol. 18, no. 2, 1999.

David George (1743-1810)

A former slave, George was a coworker with George Liele in Georgia and the main leader of the Silver Bluff Baptist Church. After the Revolution, he immigrated to Nova Scotia, where he ministered among the Loyalist exiles. Eventually, he and his church went to the free colony of Sierra Leone in Africa.

Gordon, Grant. From Slavery to Freedom: The Life of David George, Pioneer Black Baptist Minister. Hantsport, Nova Scotia: Lancelot Press, 1992. A full study of all the available materials concerning George's career.

Paris, Peter J., Jr. "David George: Paramount Ancestor of the Black Churches in the United States, Canada and Sierra Leone." Criterion, Winter 1996, pp. 2-9.

Andrew Bryan (1737-1812)

A former slave and a convert of George Liele, Bryan was one of the founders and first pastor of the First African Baptist Church of Savannah. He underwent much persecution, including a public whipping, to establish this work.

Davis, John W. "George Liele and Andrew Bryan, Pioneer Negro Baptist Preachers." Journal of Negro History 3 (1918): 119-27.

Gallay, Alan. "Planters and Slaves in the Great Awakening." In Masters and Slaves in the House of the Lord. Edited by John B. Boles. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1988, pp. 19-36. This article on the Bryans—the family that owned, supported, and later freed Andrew Bryan—describes their conversion under George Whitefield and their vain struggles to reform slavery.

"Letters Showing the Rise and Progress of the Early Negro Churches of Georgia and the West Indies." Journal of Negro History 1 (1916): 69-92.

Simms, James M. The First Colored Baptist Church in North America. 1888. Reprint. New York: Negro Universities Press, 1969. On the history of Bryan's church, the First African Baptist Church of Savannah—not truly "the first" but certainly one of the earliest African American congregations in the U.S.

Richard Allen (1760-1831)

Founder of the African Methodist Episcopal Church, Allen is one of the most important figures in black church history. A convert to Methodism, Liele purchased his freedom from slavery and became a successful preacher. Discrimination from white Methodists caused Allen and several others to form a separate body. Later in life, he became a leading opponent of efforts to send all free blacks as colonists to Africa.

Allen. Richard. The Life Experience and Gospel Labors of the Rt. Rev. Richard Allen. New York: Abingdon, 1960. Allen's own writings; brief but useful and illuminating.

George, Carol V. R. Segregated Sabbaths. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1973. Probably the standard work on Allen.

Gravely, Will. "You Must Not Kneel Here." Christian History, vol. 18, no. 2, 1999, pp. 34-36.

Klots, Steve. Richard Allen: Religious Leader and Social Activist. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1991. A very good biography for teens.

Nash, Gary B. "New Light on Richard Allen." William and Mary Quarterly 46 (1989): 332-40. An interesting, if minor, study of some details concerning Allen's early years.

"Some Letters of Richard Allen and Absalom Jones to Dorothy Ripley." Journal of Negro History 1 (1916): 436-43.

Harry Hosier (1750?-1806)

Popularly known as "Black Harry," Hosier traveled with Bishop Francis Asbury throughout the South, preaching with great success to both black and white audiences.

Licorish, Joshua E. "Harry Hosier." In Encyclopedia of World Methodism. Nashville: United Methodist Publishing House, 1974, 1: 1157-58.

Smith, Warren Thomas. "Harry Hosier: Black Preacher Extraordinary." Journal of the Interdenominational Theological Center 7 (1980): 111-28.

Lemuel Haynes (1753-1833)

A Congregationalist pastor in New England during the Second Great Awakening, Haynes was perhaps the first African American to pastor a white congregation. An heir of Puritan theology, Haynes was one of the most orthodox and most articulate black preachers in American history. He was particularly known as an opponent of Universalism and openly disputed with Universalist spokesman Hosea Ballou.

Bogin, Ruth. "‘Liberty Further Extended': A 1776 Antislavery Manuscript by Lemuel Haynes." William and Mary Quarterly 40 (1983): 85-105. First publication of a manuscript opposing slavery written by Haynes during the Revolutionary War.

Brown, Richard D. "‘Not Only Extreme Poverty, but the Worst Kind of Orphanage': Lemuel Haynes and the Boundaries of Racial Tolerance on the Yankee Frontier, 1770-1802." New England Quarterly 61 (1988): 502-18. A good overview of Haynes's career that takes recent literature into account.

Cooley, Timothy Mather. Sketches of the Life and Character of the Rev. Lemuel Haynes. 1837. Reprint. New York: Negro Universities Press, 1969. The best work on Haynes.

Haynes, Lemuel. Black Preacher to White America: The Collected Writings of Lemuel Haynes, 1774-1833. Edited by Richard Newman. Brooklyn: Carlson, 1990. An invaluable collection of Haynes's works.

Jelks, Randal. "The Character and Work of a Spiritual Watchman Described: The Preaching of Lemuel Haynes and Quest for Personal Freedom." Fides et Historia 26 (1994): 126-33. A review of Newman's edition of Haynes's works, the article provides an interesting analysis but seems to approach Haynes more in racial and sociopolitical terms than in religious ones.

"Lemuel Haynes." In Annals of the American Pulpit, edited by William B. Sprague. Vol. 2, Part 2. Trinitarian Congregational. Reprint. New York: Arno Press, 1969, pp. 176-87. Includes a letter written by Timothy Cooley, Haynes's main biographer.

Morse, W. H. "Lemuel Haynes." Journal of Negro History 4 (1919): 22-32.

Newman, Richard. Lemuel Haynes: A Bio-Bibliography. New York. Lambeth Press, 1984. A useful compilation of all known information on primary and secondary sources concerning Haynes.

John Chavis (c. 1763-1838)

Presbyterian evangelist during the Second Great Awakening and later educator in North Carolina, he was one of the most influential blacks in the antebellum South.

Boyd, Daniel L. "Free-Born Negro: The Life of John Chavis." Bachelor's thesis, Princeton University, 1947. A very good source on Chavis, marred by the author's understandable lack of mature style.

Brawley, Benjamin. Negro Builders and Heroes. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1937.

DesChamps, Margaret Burr. "John Chavis as a Preacher to Whites." North Carolina Historical Review 32 (1955): 165-72.

Franklin, John Hope. The Free Negro in North Carolina 1790-1860. 1943. Reprint. New York: Russell and Russell, 1969.

Hudson, Gossie. "John Chavis, 1763-1838: A Social-Psychological Study." Journal of Negro History 64 (1979): 142-56. Somewhat psychological in focus, but contains some helpful information.

Knight, E. W. "Notes on John Chavis." North Carolina Historical Review 7 (1930): 326-45. The best available source on Chavis.

Larson, Rachel. "John Chavis." In Faith of Our Fathers: Scenes from American Church History, edited by Mark Sidwell. Greenville, S.C.: Bob Jones Univ. Press, 1991, pp. 79-83.

Mangum, Willie Person. The Papers of Willie Person Mangum. 5 vols. Edited by Henry Thomas Shanks. Raleigh, N.C.: State Department of Archives and History, 1950. Mangum was an influential Whig politician in nineteenth-century North Carolina. Volumes 1 and 2 contain over twenty letters written from Chavis to Mangum.

Savage, W. Sherman. "The Influence of John Chavis and Lunsford Lane on the History of North Carolina." Journal of Negro History 25 (1940): 14-24.

John Stewart (c. 1786-1823)

A free-born Virginia black, Stewart was converted in Marietta, Ohio, and he joined the Methodists. Stewart went as a missionary to the Wyandot Indians in northern Ohio, where he saw some success in preaching the gospel before his early death. His grave in Upper Sandusky, Ohio, is now a Methodist shrine.

Finley, James B. Life Among the Indians. Edited by D. W. Clark. Cincinnati: Cranston and Curtis, 1859.

Marsh, Thelma R. Moccasin Trails to the Cross: A History of the Mission to the Wyandott Indians on the Sandusky Plains. Upper Sandusky, Ohio: United Methodist Historical Society of Ohio, 1974.

Mitchell, Joseph. The Missionary Pioneer; or a Brief Memoir of the Life, Labours, and Death of John Stewart, Man of Color. 1827. Reprint. Austin: The Pemberton Press, 1969. The best source on Stewart's life.

Thomas, Frank Morehead. "At the Grave of John Stewart." Methodist Quarterly Review 68 (April 1919): 316-28.

Lott Carey (c. 1780-1828)

Carey was a pioneer missionary to Africa. Born a slave in Virginia, he was converted while working in Richmond. He purchased his freedom, became first a lay exhorter and then a licensed Baptist preacher. He went to Liberia in the 1820s as one of the first American missionaries to that continent and one of the founders of that nation. (Note: As the sources listed below demonstrate, his last name was sometimes spelled Carey and sometimes Cary.)

Fisher, Miles Mark. "Lott Cary, The Colonizing Missionary." Journal of Negro History 7 (1922): 380-418, 427-48.

Fitts, Leroy. Lott Carey: First Black Missionary to Africa. Valley Forge, Pa.: Judson Press, 1978.

Gurley, Ralph Randolph. "Sketch of the Life of the Rev. Lott Cary." In Life of Jehudi Ashmun, Late Colonial Agent in Liberia, pp. 147-60. 1839. Reprint. Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Press, 1971.

"Lott Cary." In Annals of the American Pulpit, edited by William B. Sprague. Vol. 6. Baptist. Reprint. New York: Arno Press, 1969, pp. 578-87.

Poe. William A. "Lott Cary: Man of Purchased Freedom." Church History 39 (1970): 49-61.

John Jasper (1812-1901)

A former slave preacher, Jasper became a leading black preacher in the post-Civil War South. A powerful orator, despite his dialect, he is best known for the sermon "The Sun Do Move."

Day, Richard Ellsworth. Rhapsody in Black: The Life Story of John Jasper. Philadelphia: Judson Press, 1953.

Fant, Clyde E., and William M. Pinson, Jr. "John Jasper." In 20 Centuries of Great Preaching. Vol. 4. Newman to Robertson. Waco: Word Books, 1971, pp. 226-57.

Hatcher, William E. John Jasper: The Unmatched Negro Philosopher and Preacher. 1908. Reprint. New York: Negro Universities Press, 1969. The best biography of Jasper, although Hatcher seems a little condescending in a few places.

Honan, William Holmes. "John Jasper and the Sermon that Moved the Sun." Speech Monographs 23 (1956): 255-61.

Daniel Payne (1811-93)

Educator and bishop in the African Methodist Episcopal Church, Payne was free-born in Charleston, S.C. Driven out of the South by legislation prohibiting the education of blacks, he moved to the North, where he attended seminary and became a pastor. There Payne also became a staunch advocate of the abolition of slavery. He helped found Wilberforce University near Xenia, Ohio.

Coan, Josephus R. Daniel Alexander Payne—Christian Educator. Philadelphia: The A.M.E. Book Concern, 1935. Probably the best biography of Payne and containing some illuminating quotations from Payne's personal journal, but inferior in interest level to Payne's autobiography.

Griffin, Paul R. "The Black Rational Orthodox Impulse in the Post Civil War African-American Experience." Fides et Historia, vol. 23, no. 3 (1991), pp. 43-56. On the views of Payne and two other post-Civil War black Methodist leaders.

Payne, Daniel A. "Bishop Daniel Alexander Payne's Protestation of American Slavery." Journal of Negro History 52 (1967): 59-64. An 1839 address by Payne urging Lutherans to adopt an official report calling for the end of slavery in America.

———. History of the African Methodist Episcopal Church. 1891. Reprint. New York: Arno Press and the New York Times, 1969. Payne's masterwork and a valuable source on the history of the AME Church but sometimes stultifying in its depth of detail and ponderous style.

———. Recollections of Seventy Years. 1888. Reprint. New York: Arno Press and the New York Times, 1968. Payne's autobiography and one of the best sources on his life; generally very readable.

———. Sermons and Addresses, 1853-1891. Edited by Charles Killian. New York: Arno Press, 1972.

Steumpfle, Herman G. "Daniel Alexander Payne as Hymn Writer." The Hymn, January 1993, pp. 29-31.

Samuel Morris (1873-93)

A native of the Ivory Coast, Morris came to America to study so that he might return to preach to his people. He died while attending Taylor University in Indiana, but the story of his life inspired others to volunteer for missionary service.

Baldwin, Lindley. Samuel Morris. 1942. Reprint. Minneapolis: Bethany House, n.d. The best biography of Morris, although very popular in style.

Reade, Thaddeus C. Samuel Morris (Prince Kaboo). "Edition of 1924." Upland, Ind.: Taylor Univ. Press, 1924. A brief, best-selling pamphlet that was probably most responsible for publicizing Morris's life story and bringing financial stability to Taylor University.

Ringenberg. William C. Taylor University: The First 150 Years. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1996.

Matthew Anderson (1845-1928)

"Pastor, churchman, and social reformer," as the journal article below describes him, Anderson was Presbyterian pastor in Philadelphia. He was a graduate of Oberlin College and one of the first black students at Princeton Theological Seminary.

Anderson, Matthew. Presbyterianism: Its Relation to the Negro. Philadelphia: John McGill White & Co., 1897. Both Anderson's autobiography and his plea for outreach to the black community by the Presbyterian church.

Trotman, C. James. "Matthew Anderson: Black Pastor, Churchman, and Social Reformer." American Presbyterianism 66 (1988): 11-21.

Francis J. Grimké (1850-1937)

A graduate of Princeton Seminary (where he was a classmate of Matthew Anderson), Grimké was the long-time pastor of Fifteenth Street Presbyterian Church in Washington, D.C. He was a theological conservative ("a Negro Puritan," according to a biographer) and an unflinching advocate of black civil rights.

Bruce, Dickson D. Archibald Grimké: Portrait of a Black Independent. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State Univ. Press, 1993. A biography of Francis Grimké's older brother that also is useful for studying Francis Grimké‚ especially his early years.

Grimké, Francis J. "Victory for the Allies and the United States a Ground of Rejoicing, of Thanksgiving." In Negro Orators and Their Orations, edited by Carter Woodson. 1925. Reprint. New York: Russell and Russell, 1969, pp. 690-708.

———. The Works of Francis James Grimké. Washington: The Associated Publishers, 1942. 4 vols.

Ferry, Henry Justin. "Francis James Grimké: Portrait of a Black Puritan." Ph.D. diss., Yale University, 1970.

———. "Patriotism and Protest: Francis James Grimké on World War I." Journal of Religious Thought 32 (1975): 86-94.

———. "Racism and Reunion: A Black Protest by Francis James Grimké." Journal of Presbyterian History 50 (1972): 77-88.

Olmstead, Clifton E. "Francis James Grimké (1850-1937): Christian Moralist and Civil Rights." In Sons of the Prophets: Leaders in Protestantism from Princeton Seminary, edited by Hugh T. Kerr. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1963, pp. 161-75.

Sidwell, Mark. "Francis Grimké and the Fundamentalists." Biblical Viewpoint vol. 32, no. 1 (1998): 79-91.

———. "Francis James Grimké and the Value and Limits of Carter Woodson's Model of the Progressive Black Pastor." Fides et Historia 32 (2000): 99-117.

Weeks, Louis B., III. "Racism, World War I and the Christian Life: Francis James Grimké in the Nation's Capital." Journal of Presbyterian History 51 (1973): 471-88.

Charles Tindley (1851-1933)

Eloquent Methodist pastor and hymn writer, he is best known for his large ministry in Philadelphia and his songs such as "Nothing Between" and "Stand By Me." His song "I'll Overcome Some Day" was adopted and altered by the civil rights movement as "We Shall Overcome."

Costen, Melva W. "Hymn Interpretation: 'Stand by Me.'" The Hymn. January 1995, pp. 40-41.

Heinze, Lee. "Charles A. Tindley—Preacher, Pastor, Hymnwriter," Fundamentalist Journal, December 1985, pp. 40-41.

Jones, Ralph H. Charles Albert Tindley: Prince of Preachers (Nashville: Abingdon, 1982) A good biography, certainly the best available resource, but suffering from a lack of bibliography and footnotes.

Konig, Linda. "Charles Albert Tindley, Black Gospel Musician." The Church Musician, January 1988, pp. 18-19.

Reagon, Bernice Johnson, ed. We'll Understand It Better By and By: Pioneering African American Gospel Composers. Washington: Smithsonian Institute Press, 1992. Contains two articles on the career and songs of Tindley (pp. 37-78); also includes articles on other black gospel song writers, including Thomas Dorsey ("Take My Hand, Precious Lord," "Peace in the Valley") and Kenneth Morris ("Just a Closer Walk with Thee," "My God Is Real").

Tindley, Charles A. Book of Sermons. Philadelphia: Charles A. Tindley, 1932.

Charles Price Jones (1865-1949)

Founder of the Church of Christ (Holiness), U.S.A., a group similar to the Nazarenes in doctrine, Jones was a major leader among black holiness Christians. He was also a popular gospel songwriter. He split with C. H. Mason, founder of the Pentecostal Church of God in Christ, over the matter of tongues.

Cobbins, Otho, ed. History of Church of Christ (Holiness) U.S.A., 1895-1965. New York: Vantage Press, 1966.

Spencer, Jon Michael. "The Hymnody of Charles Price Jones and the Church of Christ (Holiness) USA." Black Sacred Music: A Journal of Theomusicology 4 (1990): 14-29.

John Perkins (1930- )

The founder of Voice of Calvary ministries, Perkins is an evangelical minister involved not only in evangelistic and discipleship ministries but also in projects designed to foster economic development of poor black communities, notably in his native Mississippi. Perkins has also been involved in civil rights activity, such as promoting black voter registration. Often opposed, he received national notice after suffering a vicious beating by a Mississippi sheriff and his deputies.

Balmer, Randall. Mine Eyes Have Seen the Glory. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1989. See pp. 138-54 for a discussion of Perkins and the impact of his work in Mississippi.

Berk, Stephen E. A Time to Heal: John Perkins, Community Development, and Racial Reconciliation. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1997. A full biography with very useful discussions of the relationship of the black church to Evangelicalism.

Norton, Will. "A Day in the Life of a Black Fundamentalist." Eternity. 9 September 1971, pp. 22-24, 42.

Perkins. John. Let Justice Roll Down. Glendale, Calif.: Regal Books, 1976. His autobiography; very readable.

———. "Voice of Calvary Ministries: A Case Study." Journal of Christian Reconstruction 9 (1982): 68-73.

———. "Who Speaks for the Black Community?" Presbyterion 18 (1992): 111-16.

———. With Justice for All. Ventura, Calif.: Regal Books, 1982.

Rinehart, Paula. "John Perkins and the Voice of Calvary." Discipleship Journal. 1 January 1985, pp. 18-23.

Whalin, W. Terry. John Perkins. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1996. A young people's biography for ages 8-12.