African American History Collectioni
The Freeman Institute®
Black  History  Collection


C E L E B R A T I N G    T H E    E N T R E P R E N E U R I A L    S P I R I T
Displayed  Over  the  Centuries...                           
                    People  of  African  Descent







Powerful Images of Black History from the Ancient to the Modern





South American


.....t r u t h c e n t r i s t.....t r u t h c e n t r i c.....t r u t h c e n t r i s m.....t r u t h c e n t r i c.....t r u t h c e n t r i s t.....

"t r u t h   s m a s h e d   t o   t h e   g r o u n d   w i l l   r i s e   a g a i n,   l i k e   b l a d e s
o f   g r a s s   s p r i n g i n g   u p   t h r o u g h   t h e   c o n c r e t e."    


This Web Site is Sponsored by:
The Freeman Institute
®    and    The Freeman Institute® Foundation



"se wo were fi na wosan kofa a yennki" (translation below)
"There is nothing wrong with going back to fetch what one has forgotten." 
-- Ashanti saying



Please wait for images to load -- It's worth the wait. If you were to print this entire website, it would be about 100+ pages...

The TFI Black History Collection you will review below is not for sale...with 3,000+ authentic documents and artifacts -- oldest piece is 1553 (see #21). The Freeman Institute® (est. 1993 by Joel A. Freeman, Ph.D.) administers its use. (The Freeman Institute
® Foundation).  The Freeman Institute® Black History Collection is being used to open Black History galleries -- under the umbrella of The Freeman Institute® Foundation, in strategic alliance with the Return To Glory, LLC, in major American cities and selected cities internationally...designed to educate and inspire young people.

No images or content on this page may be used without permission.
© 2005-NOW Joel A. Freeman, Ph.D.

Dr. Joel A. Freeman is the keynote speaker at many Black History presentations and cross-cultural competency
training events around the world. At the Black History Month event (pictured above) in the Washington, DC region, many
participants stayed afterwards to review documents and artifacts from The Freeman Institute® Black History collection.

  Documents and artifacts from The Freeman Institute Black History collection have been exhibited in a
number of venues around North America, including the White House Communications, US Department of Justice,
Frostburg State University and also at the United Nations commemoration of the
International Day of Remembrance of the victims of slavery and the transatlantic slave trade.

The "Transatlantic Slave Trade" Exhibition at the United Nations

20 documents & artifacts from The Freeman Institute Black History Collection were showcased.
March - May 2011    &    March - May 2012


A photo of the huge area in the main hall near the United Nations visitor's entrance
at the United Nation's "Transatlantic Slave Trade" exhibit in NYC (March - May, 2011).
20 documents & artifacts from The Freeman Institute Black History Collection were showcased.
More items from the Collection are exhibited behind the walls.


Fox News Channel segment about Joel Freeman, the
United Nation exhibition, & the Black History Gallery Project


If you are interested in learning more about the Black History Gallery Project, here is a presentation
Dr. Joel Freeman made to a group interested in establishing a Black History gallery in their community. Before this video is over, you
will have captured a glimpse into Joel Freeman's heart and vision for helping to establish Black History galleries in communities
across America and also in selected cities internationally.

Dr. Freeman at the United Nations "Transatlantic Slave Trade" Exhibit.
Twenty documents & artifacts from The Freeman Institute Black History Collection were showcased.

Dr. Freeman giving a bit historical background on the
significance of the discovery of the famous Rosetta Stone




~ Joel A. Freeman, Ph.D. ~

If you want to ask Dr. Freeman to speak at a Black History or
Cultural Diversity event...or for more information about
establishing a Black History gallery in your community, his
contact information is way down at the bottom of this page.

The White House Communications Agency (WHCA), Secret Service,
Association of International Schools in Africa (AISA),
Association for the Study of African American Life & History (ASALH),
Federal Executive Board, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL),
Maryland Association of Mental Health Counselors,
Tri Association (South / Central America & Caribbean),
European Council of International Schools (ECIS),
Montgomery County Community College, Howard County Community College,


US Army Reserves
Central Clinic
US Dept of Justice
Ft. Belvoir
Ellington Field
US Army
Howard University
Eastfield College

Blacks In Government
National Security Agency
National Science Foundation
Nuclear Regulatory Commission
Defense Threat Reduction Agency
Baltimore City Community College
Mountain States Health Alliance
Wright Patterson Air Force Base
Frostburg State University
DLA Troop Support


Some of the many organizations who have invited
Dr. Joel Freeman to present on the topics of
Black History and/or Cross-Cultural Communication:



Click on the logo to read
an overview of
The Freeman Institute® Foundation

Thanks to the many people who have been mentors, cultural / historical guides, and an inspiration to Dr. Freeman along the way
(in no particular order):
Mark Mitchell, Don Griffin, Jeffrey Wright, Ivan Van Sertima, Ben Carson, Clarence Walker, Darryl Colbert, Steve Fitzhugh, Patricia Ware, Marcus Brundage, Lenny Moore, Adrian Branch, Errol Griffith, Marcella Hinton, and many others...



Defense Threat Reduction Agency
Department of Defense
Ft. Belvoir, VA


Dear Dr. Freeman

    I would like to personally thank you for your interest, support, and participation in our observance of African American History Month and for sharing your personal thoughts, and sincere and warm concerns for the men and women in our Agency.

    Your inspiring and educational speech was the highlight of this year's observance. You were able to help us understand and feel the gandeur and importance of the historical times in which we live. It enhanced our comprehension of African American's participation in contemporary society. We are indeed fortunate to have citizens such as you who are willing to give of their personal time and lend their talents to ensure the success of such programs. Your participation attests to your character and professionalism.

    Again, many thanks for your interest and support, and outstanding presentation.

 Willisa Donald
                    Willisa Donald
                    Chief, Equal Opportunity and
                        Diversity Programs


Check out the 4 minute Return To Glory film clip (just before #11, below). Order Black History and other
resources by clicking on the Return To Glory book cover to the right (a new window will open) >>>>>>>



Some Questions -- Addressed Below



View the "You Be The Judge" mystery piece. Could this be a lost painting of Harriet Tubman? -- a few pages down...

   -  What was the first book written by an African American? -- see #1.
   -  What was the name of the first recorded song (1926) in which Louis Armstrong actually sang? -- see #4.
   -  Was Alexander Dumas (Three Musketeers, Count of Monte Cristo, etc.) of African descent? -- see #11
   -  Who manufactured a line of beauty products for Black women before Madam C. J. Walker? -- see #14
   -  Who published 16 volumes of Black History comics from 1966-1977? -- see #25.
   -  What was Pearl Bailey paid for her role in the film, Porgy and Bess? -- see #27.
   -  What was the name of one of the Life Insurance companies that insured the slaves brought over from Africa -- see #30.
   -  What role did the Royal African Company play in the African Slave Trade? -- see #35.
   -  What was Frederick Douglass doing in Dundee, Scotland in 1846? -- see #37.
   -  Who were the early Lindy Hoppers? -- see #40.
   -  What is the oldest identifiable slave ship wreck in the world? -- see #44.
   -  How did a famous British actress effect the outcome of the Civil War? -- see #61.
   -  Who was the emperor of Ethiopia from 1855 to 1868 and what did he accomplish? -- see #66.
   -  How many compositions could "Blind Tom" play on the piano? -- see #70.
   -  What is the true history behind the African American lawn jockey images? -- see #72.
   -  What was the primary catalyst behind the mass exodus of Blacks from the Republican Party after 1922? -- see #76.
   -  What sponsored the "three-fifths" concepts regarding slaves in the South? -- see #95.
   -  What slave won his freedom in a Louisville, KY horse race...36 years before the Kentucky Derby? -- see #96.
   -  What US industry employed over 3,000 African Americans (1/6 of labor force) from 1803-1860? -- see #99.
   -  Out 44 States reporting lynchings, how many States reported more whites being lynched than blacks? -- see #102.
   -  How did George Washington's visit to Barbados (1751-51) impact the outcome of the Revolutionary War? -- see #103.
   -  Who had his heart buried in Africa and his body buried in Westminster Abbey almost a year later? -- see #105.
   -  Who helped the escape of the first black man to be seized in New England under the Fugitive Slave Act? -- see #111
   -  How did the term "Jim Crow" get started? -- see #113
   -  What is the name and story of the slave owned by a Native American Indian in Louisiana? -- see #121
   -  Who employed Frederick Douglass as a ship caulker in New Bedford, MA? -- see #122
   -  What is the oldest piece (1553) in this collection? -- see #21
   -  Who was the African American juror in the 1882 trial for Guiteau, the one who assassinated President Garfield? -- see #120

   -  Check out the "Did You Know" segment at the bottom of this web page.
   -  Much, much more...

     This collection:
  1. Tears down barriers between Blacks and Whites, young and old...
  2. Opens hearts and changes minds...
  3. Surrounds Black people with their ancestors, giving a sense of awe and wonderment for people of all nationalities and ethnicities...
  4. Causes people to think and want to learn more, leading to continuing achievement, scholarship and education...
  5. Leaves a truthcentric legacy...



Donation Ideas



  If you have any relevant historic documents, artifacts, old books or photos to donate, please email a description of the piece and your contact information. All donations of historical artifacts, documents, photos or books are used for educational purposes and public display only. Donors will receive a letter of acknowledgement from The Freeman Institute Foundation and will be recognized for their contribution through the listing of the item when on display.

  Some of the donors are:
- Robert Cornuke
(set of authentic, vintage slave shackles bought in Ethiopia)
- Martha Ann Simmons
(historic cards/items of African American history)
- Gerry Slessinger
(set of authentic, vintage slave shackles from the Congo region and also a British Slave ad)
- Mark E. Mitchell
(signed Frederick Douglass document and 1748 Barbados invoice for sugar, produced by slaves, being shipped to Philadelphia)
- Dr. Joanna Kirkpatrick
(vintage sheet music copy of The Verdict March-1882) -- (#120 below)
- Jack & Kathy Spencer
(scrimshaw of four African slaves and a slave ship on an 18th Century whale's tooth)
- Stephen Dankwah
(authentic slave shackles used by his ancestors to hold African slaves at the Slave Coast and Elmina slave castles in Ghana)
- Christian Van den Broeck (two foreign 78rpm records by Josephine Baker and Rex Stewart and his Footwarmers)
- Jon Christiana (1854 -- William A. Dearing,  a physician's hand-written ledger detailing his $2 charges for helping 5 different "negro" women)...
- Gary Blevins (a plethora of "Toddy Pictures" film company dedicated to "race" films in the 1940s) -- (#125)



"We will have to repent in this generation not merely for the hateful words and actions of the bad people but for the appalling silence of the good people."     ~  Martin Luther King Jr.




T H E   F R E E M A N   I N S T I T U T E®
Black  History  Collection



~ Press Release ~

World renowned motivational speaker, Les Brown, and Joel Freeman examining an African American historical document.

Severn, MD (Press Release) -- Over the past decade, Joel Freeman has combined his entrepreneurial skills and love for history to develop The Freeman Institute® Black History Collection. The collection is currently comprised of over 3,000 authentic documents and artifacts and artifacts (oldest piece dated 1553) that communicate a story of creativity, inventiveness and perseverance.

  When Freeman makes Black History Month presentations at government agencies, corporations, educational institutions and faith-based organizations he generally brings 20-30 pieces from his collection to form a small portable exhibit for...


Own a full-size, museum-quality,
3-D Rosetta Stone replica

Schedule Dr. Joel A. Freeman for your next
Black History, Diversity or Staff Development Event


What would ever motivate a White Man to be interested in Black History?
CLICK HERE for a brief response.

Contact info for Dr. Freeman is at the bottom of this page.

Joel A. Freeman and The Freeman Institute
® on Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, Google+, Thumbtack, and YouTube



black history, African American, black heritage, black history month, egypt, pyramids, rosetta stone, frederick douglass, george washington carver, booker t. washington, slave ship, abolition, british slave trade, phillis wheatley


- An Ever-Expanding Black History Collection -

No images or content on this page may be used without permission.
© 2005-NOW Joel A. Freeman, Ph.D.

black history, African American, black heritage, black history month, egypt, pyramids, rosetta stone, frederick douglass, george washington carver, booker t. washington, slave ship, abolition, british slave trade, phillis wheatley


"African American History and the Entrepreneurial Spirit"

Lessons from Blades of Grass in a Concrete Jungle


fugitive slave laws  racism  prejudice  bigotry  slave trade  jim crow  slavery



There are many historical reasons why people have been and continue to be challenged by the hardships that accompany racism, prejudice and bigotry. Those hardships can be likened to the claustrophobic layers of concrete that gradually seek to nullify all viable options available to an individual under such weight.

But as Russian historian and novelist, Alexander Solzhenitsyn once remarked, "If the whole world were covered in concrete, a single blade of grass would sooner or later break through."

A truth-centric view of history will graphically describe the concrete of the Slave Trade, slavery, fugitive slave laws, reconstruction, Jim Crow and the struggle for civil rights.

However, there are many examples of people who, like blades of grass, have broken through and defied the power of the concrete. These are the stories we will tell.
Blades of grass cracking the mighty concrete from beneath.
Can't keep the entrepreneurial spirit down.

The Freeman Institute Black History Collection and galleries will be dedicated to
sharing some of the most powerful wisdom lessons gleaned from the many
"blades of grass" who have patiently worked their way through the concrete.
Let's take a look below at one special blade of grass -- Phillis Wheatley -- the first of many...


Objective: The Freeman Institute Foundation wants to help establish Black
History galleries in communities across America and selected cities internationally.

Purpose: to educate and inspire young people with the "C.P.A. CONCEPT".

C. P. A. Concept

     Capturing Hearts & Minds through the inspiration received from and knowledge contained in Return To Glory resources (film, book, etc.).  A combined strategic focus on this step, will allow RTG to be even more deliberate in achieving its goal of changing the distorted image of Black people by starting from their ancient beginnings instead of the traditional starting points of slavery, colonization or apartheid.
Proving the Point with documents and artifacts. Phase One has been completed by the development of The Freeman Institute Black History Collection of 3,000+ documents & artifacts -- with many already being exhibited online. The following, more comprehensive Phases will be implemented once a few Black History Gallery sites are located and additional finances are secured. Verification of the history will be established through the exhibition of genuine historical documents and artifacts, representing the respective nation in which the Foundation has a presence.
Affecting Change & Future Life Goals is realized through partnerships with national and community-based service organizations with missions to impact behavior and alter life outcomes. The Foundation's desire is to assist by providing resources to help facilitate the kind of lasting change that will help individuals realize their true potential, regardless of race, gender or generation.      Any ideas? email (cell: 410-991-9718) -- CPA concept was developed by Patricia Ware

The Freeman Institute® Black History Collection

Phillis Wheatley

  1. The rare 1838 edition of Phillis Wheatley's Memoir and Poems (Isaac Knapp, Boston, 1773 was the year of the First Edition funded by Selina, Countess of Huntingdon...see below) -- A 28 page memoir of Wheatley by Margaretta Matilda Odell, a collection of Wheatley's poems, and perhaps most importantly, it contains the third publication of the poems of the North Carolina slave George Moses Horton, preceded only by a pamphlet published in Raleigh, NC (originally entitled The Hope of Liberty, an unobtainable volume), and a reprint in 1837 in Philadelphia (no copies in American libraries). The first appearance together of the two of the first three published African-American poets (separated only by Jupiter Hammon). An exceptionally scarce title.   Wheatley, born in Africa around 1753, was enslaved and brought to America in 1761. Tutored by the Wheatley family, Phillis was able to read the most difficult passages from the Bible within sixteen months. She started writing poetry at the age of twelve and by 1770 was well known in Boston and England for her elegies. Her published poetry initiated both African-American literature as well as the strong tradition of literature by African-American women -- order postcard of Phillis Wheatley


   George Moses Horton, though of pure African parentage, was born a slave in North Carolina in 1797. In the little spare time he had he taught himself to read and began to compose poems, which he had to commit to memory because he was unable to write. Though his efforts were unappreciated by both the slave owner and his fellow slaves (who considered him "a vain fool"), he convinced his master to send him weekly to the nearby campus of the University of North Carolina, where he was able to sell produce. Soon he was composing love poetry on commission (ranging from twenty-five to seventy-five cents per poem) for students, who would claim it as their own when wooing Southern belles. Horton's business thrived and in a short time some of the academics helped him to learn to write and aided in his getting published. Sadly, his master continuously refused to allow him or others to buy his freedom. Freed by Union troops after sixty-seven years of slavery, he spent the remainder of his life in Philadelphia and died in 1883. Among his distinctions, he was the first published black Southern poet, the first black male writer to have a book published in America (Hammon's works were all published as pamphlets), the first black poetic voice to protest against slavery, and the first black author to earn money from his writings. A marvelous assemblage of two seminal figures in African-American literature, whose works are preserved for their quality as well as their historical importance.

BACKGROUND: In 1767, the Newport Mercury published Phillis Wheatley's first poem, a tale of two men who nearly drowned at sea, and of their steady faith in God. Her elegy for the evangelist George Whitefield, brought more attention to Phillis Wheatley. This attention included visits by a number of Boston's notables, including political figures and poets. She published more poems each year 1771-1773, and a collection of her poems was published in London in 1773. The introduction to this volume of poetry by Phillis Wheatley is unusual: as a preface is an "attestation" by seventeen men of Boston that she had, indeed, written the poems herself:

WE whose Names are underwritten, do assure the World, that the POEMS specified in the following Page, were (as we verily believe) written by Phillis, a young Negro Girl, who was but a few Years since, brought an uncultivated Barbarian from Africa, and has ever since been, and now is, under the Disadvantage of serving as a Slave in a Family in this Town. She has been examined by some of the best Judges, and is thought qualified to write them.

The collection of poems by Phillis Wheatley followed a trip that she took to England. She was sent to England for her health when the Wheatley's son, Nathaniel Wheatley, was traveling to England on business. She caused quite a sensation in Europe. On 13 May 1773 Selina Hastings, the Countess of Huntingdon, wrote to Susannah Wheatley (Mrs. John Wheatley), concerning religious matters -- "Your little Poetess remember me to her may the Lord keep her & hope  comfort her heart alive with the fire of that altar that never goes out, & may all under your roof dwell safe under the shadow of Jesus with great delight..."  She mentioned Phillis (little poetess), who sailed that month with Nathaniel Wheatley for England. The Countess of Huntingdon (1707-1791) was a Methodist religious leader in England, and Phillis's Poems on Various Subjects is dedicated to her. While Phillis met many people of interest in England, she was unable to connect with the Countess. She had to return unexpectedly to America when they received word that Mrs. Wheatley was ill. Sources disagree on whether Phillis Wheatley was freed before, during or just after this trip, or whether she was freed later. Mrs. Wheatley died the next spring.

-- An intriguing vintage "Negroe Slave Girl Appraisal" document mentioning a girl, Phillis...dated April 14th, 1766 -- Philadelphia. A one-of-a-kind Early American document; entirely hand-penned on laid, watermarked paper, especially since the typical spelling of the girl's name is "Phyllis." It appears as though Dr. Robert Elton settled the account and/or estate of Thomas Hart ---most important was the inclusion of the appraisal of a "Negroe Girl named Phillis" for the amount of thirty pounds. Measures about seven by twelve inches. After cursory research it has been determined that the "Phillis" mentioned in this document is not the Phillis Wheatley, even though the first name is spelled the same. Our initial thought was that perhaps John Wheatley had purchased Phillis from the estate of Thomas Hart. Phillis Wheatley was purchased by John and Susanna Wheatley in Boston a few years earlier. We are still researching to determine the identity of Phillis Wheatley's seller. The same first name of Phillis and same approximate time period of the 1760s and approximate age are items of interest. This document gives us a glimpse into early American life and the life of a young girl with the same first name as the famous, Phillis Wheatley.

-- The September 1773 edition of the Gentleman's Magazine -- first published mention of Phillis Wheatley's book.

         COUNTESS OF HUNTINGDON (1707-1791) ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-- Vintage engravings (3 copies) of Selina, Countess of Huntingdon. She funded many organizations and people, including John Newton. Even though the Countess and Phillis never actually met, she funded the printing of the first edition of Phillis Wheatley's book.
-- A 1.5" brass 1937 commemorative coin of the founding of Huntingdon, PA. On the front of the coin is a Bust of Selina Hastings  Countess of  Huntingdon. On the reverse is a Quaker shaking hands with an Indian chief at Standing Stone Monument.  Around the edge  is  Sesquicentennial  adoption of the constitution of the United States. Coin shows aging patina  but in excellent condition.
: Selina, Countess of Huntingdon, was born in 1707, married in 1728 and became a Christian at around the age of 32. She became a widow seven years later and began to devote her energies wholeheartedly to the Lord's work. Like the Wesley's and George Whitefield, she was a member of the Church of England.

Selina used her influence to arrange the appointment of evangelical clergymen in numerous parishes and appointed George Whitefield and other clergy as her chaplains, which was a way of supporting them in their ministry. The Countess opened private chapels attached to her residences, which she was allowed to do as a peeress of the realm. These were used for the public preaching of the gospel, but they became a source of contention from the local Anglican clergy, with the result that she reluctantly seceded from the Church of England in 1781. The Countess was very interested in missionary work towards the American Indians. (George Whitefield was frequently in America preaching along the east coast, in particular in Georgia, where he established the orphanage 'Bethesda', near Savannah. He left this to the Countess in his will, when he died in 1770.) When the slaves who fought for the British were given their freedom after the American War of Independence, students who had been at Trevecca went to minister to them in Nova Scotia. Some of these freed slaves returned to Africa in 1792 - to Freetown in Sierra Leone. There they started up churches of their original denominations. This was how the Countess of Huntingdon's Connexion in Sierra Leone began. It was not until 1839 that the lines of communication really were established between the two Connexions. A strong bond has existed between them ever since. When the Countess died in 1791 there were over 60 causes associating themselves with the Countess of Huntingdon.

Countess of Huntingdon

  Selina became an heir of the (Earl of Ferrer) fortune, along with inheriting the fortune of her husband (Earl of Huntingdon). Selina had become a Christian in 1739 and after the death of her husband (1741) she used the funds for the establishment of the Methodist church and the propagation of the gospel. The Countess funded Phillis Wheatley's book (London first edition) in 1773 without even actually meeting Phillis during her famous trip to England in 1773. This is the story behind the story.

-- An absolutely rare original autographed letter from London dated December 7, 1728 and signed by Washington Shirley, 2nd Earl Ferrers (1677-1729). Washington Shirley died on April 14, 1729. This letter appears to be concerning estate matters. Another contemporary hand has added a note at the top of the second page regarding the showing of this letter to his son-in-law and daughter the Earl of Huntingdon & Selina, Countess of Huntingdon, on October 11, 1730...which was signed Jos Hayne. The additional writing on the top of the second page seems to indicate that this letter was an important aspect as the estate was being settled. In the letter is mention of Mr Shepperton, Mr Maunder, Dr Mead, mention of Northampton....mention of Springwood, Dorchester, etc.
BACKGROUND: Washington Shirley, 2nd Earl Ferrers was born on 22 June 1677.1 He was the son of Robert Shirley, 1st Earl Ferrers and Elizabeth Washington. He married Mary Levinge, daughter of Rt. Hon. Sir Richard Levinge. He died on 14 April 1729 at age 51, without any sons to inherit the estate. Washington Shirley, 2nd Earl Ferrers succeeded to the title of 8th Baronet Shirley, of Staunton Harold on 25 December 1717.1 He succeeded to the title of 2nd Viscount Tamworth, of co. Stafford on 25 December 1717. He succeeded to the title of 2nd Earl Ferrers on 25 December 1717.
Children of Washington Shirley, 2nd Earl Ferrers and Mary Levinge
: Lady Selina Shirley+ d. 17 Jun 1791. Lady Elizabeth Shirley. Lady Mary Shirley d. 12 Aug 1784.

-- 1851 biography page of Phillis Wheatley, with her famous image prominently placed at the top (Illustrated Biographies)
-- 1855 wood engraving of Phillis Wheatley from Lossing's "Our Countrymen, Brief Memoirs of Eminent Americans."  It is a half-page portrait engraving, with biography of Phillis.
-- First Edition copy (1886) of Chips from the White House 1886 by Jeremiah Chaplin. A large collection of responses from the presidents starting with Washington to Cleveland. One response was to Phillis Wheatley slave who wrote poetry to George Washington.
-- Vintage 1909 edition of "The Poems of Phillis Wheatley", published by Richard R. Wright, Jr. and Charlotte Crogman Wright (A.M.E. Book Concerns, Philadelphia)
-- A hard-to-find 1930 hardcover edition of Phillis Wheatley's book, published by the Wrights and printed by A.M.E. Concern, Philadelphia...with Introduction and Notes by Charlotte Ruth Wright.
-- Scarce First Edition copy of, "The Story of Phillis Wheatley" (New York: J. Messner, 1949) by Shirley Graham Du Bois, 2nd wife of NAACP mentor, W.E.B. Du Bois.

-- Limoges platter, upon which the SS Phillis Wheatley ship was beautifully hand painted. It is signed on the back of the platter by the painter, Mrs. E.F. Cantrill (Chicago, IL dated Aug. 1921). It measures 12 inches by 17 1/2 inches and is in great condition. There is quite a story behind this image.
BACKGROUND: On September 17, 1919 the Black Star Line (run by Marcus Garvey) signed a contract to purchase its first ship, the "S. S. Yarmouth," later renamed the "Frederick Douglass," for $165,000. On November 5, 1919, plans were announced to float a second Black Star Line ship, the "S. S. Phillis Wheatley." Marcus Garvey was arrested and later deported for mail fraud and other charges. In spite of all the controversy that swirls around him, Marcus Garvey legacy is rather inspiring. Out of the destitute of a society built on White supremacy in 19th century Kingston, Jamaica; Marcus Garvey literally pulled himself up by the boot straps and became one of the most recognized symbols in the fight for the liberation of Africa. Based on his ideology, the idea of Pan-Africanism not only emerged world-wide, but started to become a reality. His legacy provided vision to such giants as W.E.B. Dubois, George Padmore, Kwame Nkrumah, Nnamdi Azikiwe, and Jomo Kenyatta at the 5th Pan-African Congress which ultimately led to the liberation from the colonization of African nations such as Ghana and Kenya. Most importantly, Marcus Garvey’s life and philosophy is still inspiring millions upon millions of present day freedom fighters from Africa, America, Europe and the Caribbean to make sacrifices that will one day in the near future make his dream of Africa for the Africans realized. On October 3, 2002
Jamaican Prime Minister  P.J. Patterson has reiterated his strong support for current legislation, pending in the United States House of Representatives, that would vindicate National Hero, Marcus Mosiah Garvey, thus clearing the way for an official absolution of the Jamaican patriot by the American President.

-- Extremely rare 78 rpm 10" Pathe Actuelle disc no. 032053 with blues singer Hazel Meyers in 1923 sings 'Black Star Line', a homage to Marcus Garvey's Black Star Line, a shipping company formed by Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association for the transport of goods and people from the USA to Africa. Garvey's plan failed for a variety of reasons, not least the fact that Garvey was sold ships that were in very poor condition. Here Hazel Meyers, with accompaniment by Fletcher Henderson and trumpeter Howard Scott, dreams of 'Going home on the Black Star Line'. The reverse is 'Pipe Dream Blues."
Here are the lyrics to "Black Star Line" (a West Indian Chant):

1. Brothers and sisters, country man, you'd better get on board,

Big steamship gwine to sail away, Lord, with a heavy load,

It's gwine to take us all back home, yes every native style

And when we get there what a time, down on the West Indies isle.


(chorus) Get on board country man,

I say, get on board, leave this land,

A-get on board, country man,

Gwine back on be Black Star Line.

2. Take my Bowie knife in hand and lay around de dock,

Jump right in the deep blue sea, pick fights with the sharks,

I'm gwine see Brother Abraham, go catch that "Sly Mongoose,"

I'm going down to see my downtown gal, and then we'll raise the deuce.


3. We'll eat monkey hips and rice, tomato, garlic, too

Then we'll grab out favorite sport, child, chasing monkey, too,

I done put my last dime down on dis great steamship,

Lord, I hope that it won't sink, I wanna take this trip.


Historian and writer, John Cowley, states that references in "Black Star Line" to the song, "Buddy Abraham," recorded by the Banda Belasco, Trinidad (1914) and "Sly Mongooses" (1923) -- together with the derogatory comments regarding "monkey chasers" -- exemplifies antagonism between elements in black North America and migrant workers. The description "country man" is an allusion to Garvey's followers and his avowed intention of organizing the repatriation of black people to their place of origin, Africa.


~~~~~ A N   I N T R I G U I N G   M Y S T E R Y   P I E C E ~~~~~
Y O U   B E   T H E   J U D G E

 Is this a long lost painting of the conductor of the
Underground Railroad, Harriet Tubman?

Harriet Tubman?

 the body structure





Harriet Tubman



Harriet Tubman?

the facial features






Harriet Tubman?

the lips and chin

Harriet Tubman

Harriet Tubman?

the nose and cheeks

19th Century painting of a corn-cob-pipe-smoking African American woman who bears a
remarkable resemblance to the five-foot-tall "Moses" of the Underground Railroad -- Harriet Tubman.
( more comparative photos of the real Harriet Tubman below )

  A large (18" wide x 24" tall), unsigned 19th century oil painting of an American Slave woman, most likely painted during her life. Though we are not experts on paintings we feel this is realism. Realists render everyday characters, situations, dilemmas, and objects, all in a "true-to-life" manner. Realists tend to discard theatrical drama, lofty subjects and classical forms of art in favor of commonplace themes. We are not sure who painted this woman, but we can see for certain this portrait was meant to be very realistic.

  In person, this artwork is compelling, a viewer cannot help but feel the meaning in this work. We are intrigued by the similarities between this oil painting and the famous Harriet Tubman. We researched artwork and famous women slaves of that era in America and found many characteristics are shared between the woman in the painting and Harriet herself. Learn more here...

Large 19th Century painting (18" x 24") that experienced some water damage on the middle right-hand side. The painting bears
a remarkable resemblance to Harriet Tubman.
Judge for yourself...

Harriet Tubman








Could this be a lost, genuine painting of the real Harriet Tubman?
Intrigued? Curious?
Before reviewing the rest of the Black History Collection, read more details here.

Dr. Freeman discussing the painting at a
US Department of Justice Black History Month event

We have fine art canvas/varnished giclee' reproductions
of this image (unframed, in stock) in three sizes
Click on sizes below to make your order
11" x 14" ($39)       16" x 20" ($59)       18" x 24" ($79)
Email us with your interest in quantities.


Click on either image above to read more
of the story behind this intriguing painting

[ Any ideas? If you can offer expert advice, we will send you a number of other close-up photos of this painting. ]
Dr. Joel Freeman's contact info is at the bottom of this page.


Dr. Joel A. Freeman

By the way, what would ever motivate a White Man to be interested in Black History?
Before reviewing the fine collection below, CLICK HERE for a brief response.






  2. Wedgwood jasperware Abolitionist, Anti-Slavery cameo medallion (3 medallions in collection), with the bound slave on the front, and the words "Am I Not A Man and A Brother?" around it. From 1787 until his death in 1795, Josiah Wedgwood actively participated in the British Abolition of Slavery cause. Josiah’s most important contribution to the movement for the Abolition of Slavery, the so-called Slave Medallion, was one which brought the attention of the public to the horrors of the Slave trade. (There are varying views on the portrayal of bound slave and slogan.)

  Josiah Wedgwood sent a large number of cameos to Benjamin Franklin in Philadelphia who also remarked on the value of the medallion as a means of bringing awareness of the existence if slavery to the public. What is particularly amazing is that the climate of the Revolutionary War was hostile to good British/American relations. In this context the abolitionist movement was born and people came together to fight the evils of the Slave Trade.
-- Also, an absolutely rare mid-1800s antique bronze figure of man (weighs 18 oz.) pictured to the right -->



   BACKGROUND:Josiah Wedgwood (1730-1795) is considered by many as one of the most influential figures in the history of Western civilization ceramics, and was a successful and renowned innovator, scientist and businessman. He was also a supporter of the 18th century Anti-Slavery Committee and designed a cameo medallion depicting a slave kneeling in chains surrounded by the inscription, “Am I not a man and a brother?” Benjamin Franklin said of Wedgwood’s tokens, “they may have an effect equal to that of the best written pamphlet.” Although thousands were freely given to anyone who shared Josiah’s sentiments on slavery, thousands more were manufactured and sold. Wedgwood showed that one could promote social change while building a business. Doing good while doing well.  This symbol was the first and most identifiable image of the 18th century abolitionist movement: a kneeling African man. Members of the Society of Friends, informally known as Quakers, were among the earliest leaders of the abolitionist movement in Britain and the Americas. By the beginning of the American Revolution, Quakers had moved from viewing slavery as a matter of individual conscience, to seeing the abolition of slavery as a Christian duty. Quakers, who believe in simplicity in all things, tended to view the arts as frivolous; but when the Quaker-led Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade met in London in 1787, three of its members were charged with preparing a design for "a Seal to be engraved for the use of this Society." Later that year, the society approved a design "expressive of an African in Chains in a Supplicating Posture." Surrounding the naked man was engraved a motto whose wording echoed an idea widely accepted during the Enlightenment among Christians and secularists: "Am I Not A Man and A Brother?" The design was approved by the Society, and an engraving was commissioned.

ADDITIONAL BACKGROUND: The design was symbolic both artistically and politically. In addition to evoking classical art, the figure's nudity signified a state of nobility and freedom, yet he was bound by chains. Black figures, usually depicted as servants or supplicants, typically knelt in the art of the period, at a time when members of the upper classes did not kneel when praying; this particular image combined the European theme of conversion from heathenism and the idea of emancipation into a posture of gratitude. In 1788, a consignment of the cameos was shipped to Benjamin Franklin in Philadelphia, where the medallions became a fashion statement for abolitionists and anti-slavery sympathizers. They were worn as bracelets and as hair ornaments, and even inlaid with gold as ornaments for snuff boxes. Soon the fashion extended to the general public. Although the intent and the effect of the emblem was to focus public opinion on the evils of the African slave trade (which it did accomplish), its ultimate effect was to underscore the perception of black inferiority. The supplicant posture of blacks persisted as a standard feature of Western art long after slavery was abolished. Ironically, although the image became the emblem of the anti-slavery movement, the Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade was emphatic that its only goal was the abolition of the slave trade, not of slavery itself. That position was vigorously protested by individual members such as Granville Sharp, the most influential abolitionist of his time.

-- Unique vintage brass door knocker with an image of William Wilberforce on the knocker. On the part affixed to the door is an image of the African slave with the words, "Am I Not A Man and A Brother?".

-- Deluxe Ruskin Folio Limited Edition JMW Turner R.A. - The Slave Ship -- Fine Laid Paper with full Intaglio plate mark ~ VERY RARE 1 of only 160 published plates. Beautiful JMW Turner R.A. illustration from the work in the Collection of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, U.S.A." published in 1900 as one of only 160 de-luxe folio edition illustrations compiled by Frederick Wedmore as an "Exposition of the Work of Turner from the Writings of Ruskin" and published by George Allen, Charing Cross, London.

   3. 7" figurines of Tom Molineaux and Tom Cribb (repros of Straffordshire -- 3 sets). Born 1784, Tom Molineaux was the first unofficial American Boxing Champion. Tom Molineaux was born a slave but fought his way to freedom and ultimately a shot at the heavyweight title. He began boxing other slaves while plantation owners wagered on the bouts. Finally after defeating a slave from a rival plantation, he was given his freedom and $500. He traveled to New York and then, in 1809, he left for England and began boxing. Molineaux was trained by Bill Richmond, another freed American slave who became a notable prize fighter in England. Molineaux won two bouts in England and the ease with which he won quickly lined him up for a title shot against British heavyweight champion Tom Cribb.


  In December 18th, 1810, Molineaux challenged Crib in a classic encounter. After some 39 rounds of give and take, Molineaux finally collapsed from exhaustion. The great Pierce Egan, who described the American as "The Tremendous Man of Colour," wrote of the contest: "Molineaux proved himself as courageous a man as ever an adversary contended with ... [Molineaux] astonished everyone, not only by his extraordinary power of hitting and his gigantic strength, but also by his acquaintance with the science, which was far greater than any had given him credit for." The two Cribb fights made Molineaux a celebrity in England. But he fought only sporadically, opting to engage in numerous sparring exhibitions. In 1818, he died in Dublin, Ireland.

-- October 13, 1818 edition of the New-York Spectator reporting the death of Tom Molineaux, the celebrated pugilist at Galway, Ireland. Tom was the first American boxer to fight for the London Prize Ring championship. A former slave, Molineaux reportedly got his freedom after winning a boxing match on which his owner (Algernon Molineaux) had placed a large bet.


  • Boxing champions of this era were England’s very first sport stars; hitherto only exceptional animals had been household names in the sporting world. Boxing (or milling, as it was commonly called) was patronized at the highest level of society, but it appealed to all classes because fights indulged the national propensity to gamble.
  • Boxing matches were illegal in the early 19th century. The ideal site was a remote outdoor location that accommodated thousands of spectators and eluded magisterial detection.
  • The boxing ring was a roped-off area, usually from twenty to forty feet square, and it was surrounded by an outer ring accessible only to umpires, officials, select friends, and those charged with keeping the crowd at bay. A sea of standing spectators surrounded the outer ring, and carriages and wagons circled the field to form a grandstand of sorts. Sometimes crowd control necessitated constructing an elevated wooden stage for the ring.
  • Boxers did not wear gloves. Each boxer, stripped to the waist, was assisted by only his bottle-holder and his second. The latter lent his knee as a seat, offered advice, administered ringside surgery, and generally did whatever it took—biting ears was common—to keep his man conscious.
  • Unlike today’s fights, matches were unlimited in length, and rounds ended only when a boxer went down. A downed boxer had a thirty-second count, and then he had to be at the scratch, the name given a square chalked in the ring center. If he could not make it, he was defeated. Fights were protracted slugfests in which men pummeled away at each other interminably. Blood flowed freely as bare fists shredded faces, swelled eyes shut, and reduced hands and knuckles to painful pulp, despite careful pre-fight “pickling” in astringent. Matches could last very many rounds, very many hours. Boxers fought relatively few times in their lives because the human body can only take so much.

-- Joe Louis, The Brown Bomber Little Big Book, dated 1936, is approximately 3 1/8" x 4 1/2" and it has 238 pages. There are many photos of Joe in training, talking with his manager, being certified medically fit, fight scenes, etc. These old books of sports figures like Joe Louis do not come along very often.
-- A vintage, original 1935 Joe Louis vs. King Levinsky boxing poster. Poster measures approx. 6" x 12" and is printed on pulp paper.
-- Boxing gloves personally signed by Muhammad Ali, Joe Frazier, George Foreman, Mike Tyson, Sugar Ray Leonard & others...

Negro Actor's Guild

 4. One-of-a-kind signed letters/albums/contracts/sheet music from Nat King Cole, Dizzy Gillespie, Duke Ellington, Lionel Hampton, Louis Armstrong, B. B. King, Ethel Waters, Pearl Bailey, Miles Davis, Lindy Hoppers, Sarah Vaughan, Fats Domino, Quincy Jones, Earl Hines, Etta James, S. Coleridge-Taylor, Ella Fitzgerald, Sammy Davis, Jr., Grover Washington, Jr., Count Basie, Mills Brothers, Ozzie Davis, Lena Horne, Four Tops, Cicely Tyson, James Brown, Charley Pride, Bo Diddley, Bobby Blue, Chubby Checkers, and others...Negro Actor's Guild 1945 Program (NAG, with Noble Sissle as president) is pictured to the left.
-- AFTRA Contract signed by Cicely Tyson for her appearance on the Nancy Wilson Show pilot, Mar. 18, 1973. Paid $181.
-- AFTRA Contract signed by Lena Horne for her appearance on Kraft Music Hall, Nov. 17, 1969. Paid $7500 and $50 per diem, plus 2 First Class R/T air tickets from LA to NY.
-- AFTRA Contract signed by the Four Tops for their appearance on Kraft Summer Music Hall, signed April 10, 1968. Paid $2500 for show to be aired August 21, 1968.
-- Waiver for late AFTRA filing signed by Diahann Carroll on Dec. 9, 1987.
-- Employment contract signed by Ella Fitzgerald on October 31, 1960.
-- 1989 NBC contract signed by Lionel Hampton, no compensation for appearance. November 15, 1989.


-- American Federation of Musicians contract signed by Bo Diddley for his appearance in Jacksonville, Orlando, and Tampa Feb. 20 - March 1, 1970.
-- American Federation of Musicians contract signed by Duke Ellington and his Orchestra for appearance in Shrine Auditorium, LA on June 4th, 1960. Headline billing, paid $3000, but paid an extra $1000 if promoter grosses over $10,000.
-- Original signed engagement contract for jazz legend Lionel Hampton at Mansfield State College, PA on March 9, 1963 (band was paid $2000 for the gig!).
-- KABC radio contract for the Michael Jackson Show, signed by Robert Guillaune, states that "he discussed his career as Benson in Soap and as Benson in his own sit-con, Benson." No compensation for his appearance. November 19, 1979.
-- American Federation of Musicians contract signed by Charley Pride for an event at the Ozark Mountain Amphitheatre in Branson, MO. Rider states that he is to receive 100% top billing and that his name is to be spelled correctly (Charley). Paid $20,000 plus 60/40 split over $55,000. Neal McCoy is opening act. June 25, 1988.
-- Original 4-Page contract (1935) between the Lindy Hoppers and Samuel Goldwyn. Signing twice are George "Shorty" Snowden, Freddie Lewis, Madeline Lewis, Beatrice Gay, Beatrice Elam and Leroy Jones. They were paid $2500 for a week's service. Research has determined that this document is most probably the contract for the film short, "Ask Uncle Sol".
-- Actors Television Motion Picture contract signed by Leslie Uggams for her role as "Amanda Price" in the movie "Hotel -- Discoveries." Paid $10,000. October 13, 1986.
-- Standard AFTRA Engagement Contract for Single TV Broadcast signed by Leslie Uggams for her appearance on the Glen Campbell Show. Paid $7500. December 20, 1968. Show aired March 2, 1969.
-- American Federation of Musicians contract signed by jazz great, Donald Byrd (Blackbyrd Productions), to appear at the Great American Music Hall, San Francisco. Ticket price, $6, paid $3,000 against the rights to 70% of the gross. July 30, 1979.
-- Standard AFTRA Exclusive Agency Contract (1 year) with CNA & Associates, signed by Richard Roundtree (Shaft). June 6, 1989.
-- Contract signed by Sarah Vaughn for performing 100% Sole Star Billing at the Van Wezel Performing Arts Cebter, Sarasota, FL. Paid $20,000. Includes stage plot. May 1, 1987.
-- Standard AFTRA exclusive agency contract (3 years) with The Artists Agency signed by Ossie Davis. May 4, 1987.
-- American Federation of Musicians contract by blues great B.B. King for his appearance at Shea's Buffalo Theater, Buffalo, NY. Paid a flat $7500, with 100% top billing. Signed July 30, 1976. Show was March 19, 1977. Rider, with letter and check receipt included.
-- Standard AFTRA Network TV contract for the Harlem Globetrotters TV Special shot at The Forum in LA, signed by Pearl Bailey. Paid $1000. Jan. 28, 1972.
-- Agency For The Performing Arts agreement signed by Isaac Hayes for his appearance on the "Sonny and Cher Comedy Hour." July 16, 1973.
-- William Morris Agency contract (10%) signed by Pearl Bailey to represent her in relation to the motion picture industry and the Screen Actor's Guild (SAG). March 30, 1945.

-- 1971-Standard Aftra Engagement Contract, signed and agreed to by Pearl Bailey and Roncom Productions. Perry Como was producer of the Pearl Bailey Show. Pearl Bailey was paid $7,500 plus $2,500 in expenses for this show. The contract is dated Jan 28, 1971. Signed in blue ink by Pearl Bailey, (Pres). Exc. cond. This contract was part of the archives from the office of Perry Como.
- William Morris contract signed by Earl "Fatha" Hines vintage and dated January 15, 1941. Earl Hines was known as one of the most famous jazz pianist's of the 20th Century and created many standards of today. This vintage signed contract is in excellent condition with a bold autograph of Earl Hines in vintage fountain pen. The contract is also signed by Charles Carpenter sometimes known as Charlie Carpenter who wrote and worked closely with Earl Hines on many songs including the famous song "You Can Count On Me". He has signed under Earl Hines as Witness. The contract is actually signed by two famous Jazz musicians which makes this contract very rare and unique.
-- William Morris Agency contract, signed by Earl "Fatha" Hines (10% -- representing him from 10/1943 - 1/1948). Signed 10/12/1943. Signed contracts by Earl Hines are very rare.
-- AGVA Standard Form for Artists Engagements Contract, signed by Eartha Kitt (Catwoman) for an appearance in San Bernardino, CA on March 20, 1964. Paid $1500. This contract would've been cancelled if  Las Vegas event opened up for her on the same day.
-- WPIX "Clay Cole's Diskotek Program" NY appearance signed by the Shirelles, Addie Harris (3/27/1967)
-- An historical 33 page recording contract (1983) between Jennifer Holliday and David Geffen. This was at the height of her career...for a six year period. The contract stated seven years, but Jennifer changed it to six years and initialed it in three different places. The contract discusses the number of masters Jennifer must complete and the payment from the Geffen Group. In 1979 Jennifer joined the Broadway show, Dreamgirls on its successful four year run...winning a Tony Award. Dreamgirls was followed by the Broadway show, Mahalia, and a Number One charted hit, And I Am Telling You. Jennifer won multiple Grammys as well as Tony Awards. She had many hits in the 1980s, including five Number One Billboard hits. Jennifer boldly signs on the last page of the contract.

-- Signed contracts for the Detroit music scene from 1956-1971 (R&B, Soul, Jazz and Blues):  Ron Butler and the Ramblers (1971), James Holland and The Holidays (1971), Lloyd Sims & The Untouchables Promo Kit/Contracts (1961), Sammy Bryant Group Press Kit/Photo/Contract (1966)...Roulette recording artists, Lonnie Woods (1965), Jon Bartel & Soul Masters (1968), Jesse Ullmer (1966), Dwight (Jon D) Pettiford (1971), Billy Allyn "Laff of the Party" on Dooto Records, with appearances on Sanford & Son (1961), Bill Murry, Comic (1966), Tommy Hunt and The Flamingos (1956-1960), Albert King Promotional Lot -- Stax Records (1970).


T E S T   P R E S S I N G S  --  78 rpm   R E C O R D S  (vintage, one-of-a-kind)

The following 78s came from the private collection of Mr. Rudy May who was an employee of Decca Records for about
40 years. During that time Rudy was involved in nearly every aspect of recording and record manufacturing at Decca.

A test pressing was generally heard by the artist and key decision-makers to determine if
the song was viable as the final take -- to be mass-produced for the general public.
The Freeman Institute Black History Collection owns well over 100 original test pressings:

                 LOUIS JORDAN ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  --- One-of-a-kind, original one-sided test pressing (10" 78rpm) of Louis Jordan & his Tympany Five, "I Like 'Em Fat Like That." Decca #71819, recorded March 15, 1944 in New York. Jordan's name and song title are hand-written in period ink. Louis Jordan and his Tympany Five: Eddie Roane, tp; Louis Jordan, as, voc; Arnold Thomas, p; Al Morgan, b; Wilmore "Slick" Jones, d.
    BIO: Louis Jordan (1908-1975) was one of the most successful African-American musicians of the 20th century, ranking fifth in the list of the all-time most successful black recording artists according to Billboard Magazine's chart methodology.
Lyrics: Let the cats all criticize, joke about my baby's size, she's reet with me because you see, I likes 'em fat like that.
When she bounces down the street, she's a whole heap of honey and ain't she sweet, feels so fine to know that she is mine, I likes 'em fat like that. You can have all those lean chicks tender and tall, but when it comes to mean kicks,
a big fat momma's the best of all, after I get through working well I reach and grab my hat, and I hurry home, don't want her to be alone, coz I likes 'em fat like that.
  >>> A genuine Decca 78rpm record (#71819) with "I Like 'em Fat Like That" by Louis Jordan and His Tympany Five. Part of the Decca Personality Series #23810.
LOUIS JORDAN & ELLA FITZGERALD ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  --- One-of-a-kind, genuine double sided acetate test pressing (10" 78rpm) of Louis Jordan and Ella Fitzgerald, "Baby, It's Cold Outside" and "Don't Cry Baby." Decca #unknown, recording date is 1949. Jordan's name and Fitzgerald's name and song title are hand-written in period ink. Possibly a unique item! The a-side is the classic "Baby, It's Cold Outside". I'm not sure what the standard version of this tune sounds like but this one is nearly all vocal with very subdued instrumental accompaniment barely audible through most. Piano is really the only instrument we can make out. The b-side has regular instrumental accompaniment. These could be alternate takes - We have no way of knowing for sure. One-of-a-kind? We think so!
MAURICE ROCCO ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  --- Test pressing (10" 78rpm) of Maurice Rocco's song "Little Rock Getaway" Decca #93584A -- recorded March 11, 1941. Rocco's name and song title are hand-written in period ink.
  >>> A genuine Decca 78rpm record (#8544) with "Little Rock Getaway" by Maurice Rocco.
    BIO: Born in Oxford, Ohio, Maurice Rockhold (1915-1976) later became known as a jazz musician who played the piano while standing up. He performed briefly with Duke Ellington before adopting the stage name Maurice Rocco.
COLEMAN HAWKINS ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  --- Pre-war test pressing (10" 78rpm) of Coleman Hawkins with The Ramblers -- song "What Harlem is To Me." Decca #AM 179. Date of recording is August 26, 1935. Coleman's name and song title are hand-written in pencil. Here are the musicians on this song: George Van Helvoirt, Jack Bulterman (tp), Marcel Thielemans (tb), Wim Poppink (cl, as, bar), Andre Van Den Ouderaa (cl, ts, vn), Coleman Hawkins (ts), Nico de Rooy (p), Jack Pet (g), Toon Diepenbroeck (sb), Kees Kranenburg (dm). Casino Hamdorff, Laren,
BIO: Coleman Randolph Hawkins (1904–1969), nicknamed "Bean," or simply "Hawk," was the first important tenor saxophonist in jazz. Sometimes called the "father of the tenor sax," Hawkins is one of jazz's most influential and revered soloists. An improviser with an encyclopedic command of chords and harmonies, Hawkins played a formative role over a 40-year (1925-1965) career spanning the emergence of recorded jazz through the swing and bebop eras.
JIMMIE LUNCEFORD & HIS ORCHESTRA  ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  --- Pre-war test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the song "For Dancer's Only" by Jimmie Lunceford & his Orchestra. Decca #62263, dated 1937. Lunceford's name and song title are hand-written in period ink. One-sided.
  --- Scarce smaller master recording (8" 33 1/3rpm) of the songs "T'aint What You do, It's the Way Cha Do It" (Uptown Blues, Pro-533) and "Walkin' Thru
" (For Dancer's Only, Pro-534) by Jimmie Lunceford & his Orchestra. Capitol, dated 1-24-1958. Lunceford's name is listed on both sides.
  --- Three test pressings (12" discs) of the song "Blues in the Night" aka "My Mama Done Told Me" by Jimmie Lunceford & his Orchestra for the Jerry Lawrence be aired on Saturday, August 20, 1955. 
  * Disc #1 -- (12" 78rpm) Part 1 Taped August 6th, 1954 and aired August 7th, 1954. #4932-S2 -- metal disc
  * Disc #2 -- (12" 78rpm) Part 2. Taped on August 6th and aired August 7th, 1954 -- metal disc
  * Disc #3 -- (12" 33rpm). Taped on August 19, 1955 and aired Saturday, August 20, 1955. #6110 (S411-HWB) acetate disc
  BACKGROUND:  Jerry Lawrence
, early radio and television quiz show host, disc jockey and announcer of such shows as "Truth or Consequences. Born in Rochester, N.Y., and brought up in Long Beach, CA, Lawrence developed his radio career in the 1930s at New York City radio stations WOR, WNEW and the CBS network. During World Was II he was recognized for hosting the music and interview show "Moonlight Savings Time," broadcast to troop ships and war industry workers from 2:30 a.m. to 5 a.m. As a disc jockey, he promoted the music of a young singer named Frank Sinatra and was an early announcer on "The Frank Sinatra Show" in 1944. Lawrence returned to the Los Angeles area in 1945 and worked in radio and early television at KTLA, KCOP and KFWB. He hosted CBS' "The Spade Cooley Show" featuring the orchestra leader in 1951, and helped develop local quiz shows, including "Play Marco" for KTLA. He was an announcer for television's popular game show "Truth or Consequences" when it was hosted by Jack Bailey on NBC in 1954 and 1955.
  --- Pre-war test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the song "My Blue Heaven" by Jimmie Lunceford & his Orchestra. Decca #60277, dated 1935. Lunceford's name and song title are hand-written in period ink. One-sided.
  --- Another pre-war test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the song "The Melody Man" by Jimmie Lunceford & his Orchestra. Decca #60277, dated 1935. Lunceford's name and song title are hand-written in period ink. One-sided.
  --- Yet another pre-war test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the song "Organ Grinder's Swing" by Jimmie Lunceford & his Orchestra. Decca #61246A, dated 1936. Lunceford's name and song title are hand-written in period ink. One-sided.
  >>> A genuine Decca 78rpm record (#61246) with "Organ Grinder's Swing" by Jimmie Lunceford and His Orchestra.
    BIO: James Melvin "Jimmie" Lunceford (
19021947) was an American jazz alto saxophonist and bandleader of the swing era. Lunceford was born in Fulton, MO, but attended school in Denver and earned a Bachelor of Arts degree at Fisk University. In 1927, while teaching high school in Memphis, TN, he organized a student band, the Chickasaw Syncopaters, whose name was changed to the Jimmie Lunceford Orchestra when it began touring. The orchestra made its first recording in 1930. In 1947, while playing in Seaside, Oregon, Lunceford collapsed and died from cardiac arrest during an autograph session. Allegations and rumors circulated that Jimmie had been poisoned by a fish-restaurant owner who was unhappy at having to serve a "Negro" in his establishment.
LIONEL HAMPTON ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  --- Test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the song "Pink Champagne" and "Oh Well Oh Well!" by Lionel Hampton & his Orchestra. Decca #5758, date is unknown. Lionel Hampton's name and song titles are hand-written in period ink. Rare and possibly one of a kind acetate test pressing of this jazz great! Label on the a-side only states the artist and the title "Oh! Well Oh! Well". "Pink Champagne" is written but has been crossed out. The b-side label states the title and a portion of it has been torn off. 
FLOYD RAY & HIS ORCHESTRA ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  --- Single-sided shellac test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the immensely popular song "Skeleton in My Closet" recorded and released in 1939 by Floyd Ray and His Orchestra (1885-1941). Floyd Ray (1909-1985). Test pressing of Decca 2618-B, matrix 65393-A. Floyd Ray and his Orchestra formed and played around 1925-1950. There were 3 female singers (The V's), from whom it is said that the Andrew Sisters derived their singing style. Floyd Ray's son, Stephen Ray, recalls their names: Lavern (Vern) Whittaker; Willie Lee (Von) Floyd, and (Ivy) Jones. Floyd's first band was called "The Harlem Dictators". Floyd played saxophone and bass, but not in his bands. He was primarily the leader, arranger and songwriter. During the years 1918-1930, they played at New York's famed Apollo Theater and also at the Cottonwood Club, among other places.
LOUIS ARMSTRONG & HIS HOT FIVE ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  ---  AN ABSOLUTELY UNIQUE ITEM! --A single-sided acetate test pressing (10" 78rpm) of Louis Armstrong and His Hot Five, "Georgia Grind." This song is Louis Armstrong's first genuine vocal performance. No record matrix present, but it was listed as 9533A. The date February 26, 1926 is hand written on the label.

   Armstrong recorded this song with the Hot Five in Chicago on this date. This is the first line-up featuring Kid Ory, Johnny Dodds, Johnny St. Cyr, and Louis' wife, Lil Armstrong. Armstrong's name and song title are hand-written in period ink on a blank white label. The entire album that was produced around that time had a great set of great recordings including Louis' first genuine vocal performances on Georgia Grind and Heebie Jeebies. Armstrong's wife Lil also does vocal work on Georgia Grind. Following this day's work, four two-sided discs are ready for release. Oriental Strut / You're Next and Muskrat Ramble / Heebie Jeebies are given consecutive release numbers by OKeh; Georgia Grind is paired with Come Back, Sweet Papa (from February 22); and Cornet Chop Suey finds its mate with My Heart, recorded back in November. This group of songs includes some truly landmark recordings, especially Kid Ory's Muskrat Ramble, which immediately takes its place as a jazz standard.
  >>> A genuine Hot Jazz Club of America 78rpm record (#HC21) with "Georgia Grind" by Louis Armstrong and His Hot Five.

Listen to "Georgia Grind"


  --- A two-sided acetate test pressing (10" 78rpm) of Louis Armstrong and His Hot Five, "You Made Me Love You" and "Irish Black Bottom." No record number is listed and no matrix present, but it is listed as 9980A and 9981A. The date November 27, 1926. Armstrong recorded these songs with the Hot Five in Chicago on this date. These songs featured Louis Armstrong (Cornet, Vocal), Henry Clark (Trombone), Johnny Dodds (Clarinet), Johnny St. Cyr (Banjo), and Louis' wife, Lil Armstrong (piano).
LOUIS ARMSTRONG ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


Louis Armstrong: Elder Eatmore's Sermon on Throwing Stones

  ------- Single-sided test pressing (10" 78rpm) of Louis Armstrong & his Orchestra, "Mahogany Hall Stomp." Decca #6111A, recording date is January 28, 1933 (Chicago). Armstrong's name and song title are hand-written in period ink.
------- A genuine (British) Parlaphone 78rpm record (#01691B) with "Mahogany Hall Stomp" by Louis Armstrong and His Orchestra.
------- Original one-sided test pressing (10" 78rpm) of Louis Armstrong & his Orchestra, "Elder Eatmore's Sermon on Generosity." Decca #64437, recording date is August 11, 1938. Armstrong's name and song title are hand-written in period ink. This song was on the Louis and the Good Book album.
------- One-sided test pressing (10" 78rpm) of Louis Armstrong & his Orchestra, "Elder Eatmore's Sermon on Throwing Stones." Decca #64436A, recording date is August 11, 1938. Armstrong's name and song title are hand-written in period ink. This song was also on the Louis and the Good Book album.


  --- Single-sided test pressing (10" 78rpm) of Louis Armstrong & his Orchestra, "She's the Daughter of a Planter from Havana." Decca #62335, recording date is July 7, 1937 (New York City, Chaplin; Kahn). Armstrong's name and song title are hand-written in period ink.
  --- Single-sided test pressing (10" 78rpm) of Louis Armstrong & his Orchestra, "Yours and Mine." Decca #62329, recording date unknown. Armstrong's name and song title are hand-written in period ink.
LOUIS ARMSTRONG & HIS FIRST APPEARANCE IN FILM ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

  ---  A GROUND-BREAKING ITEM! --A single-sided acetate test pressing (10" 78rpm) of Louis Armstrong, "Skeleton in The Closet." This song is Louis Armstrong's first featured role in a Hollywood musical -- alongside Bing Crosby. No record matrix present, but it was listed as Decca DLA 539-A. The date August 7, 1936. Louis Armstrong with Jimmy Dorsey and his Orchestra. Louis Armstrong plays trumpet and does the vocals.
: Armstrong plays Henry, a hired musician at the Haunted House Cafe. Servants and subserviant roles were pretty much the only options available to blacks in the pre-civil-rights Hollywood - even for as big a star as Armstrong. The song comes from Pennies From Heaven, Armstrong’s first major studio picture. He was hired for the film at the insistence of its star, Bing Crosby, a lifelong student, friend, collaborator and admirer of Pops. When the film came out, Armstrong got his own credit during the main titles, making him the first African-American to get featured billing alongside white actors. So Pops was pioneering, though some critics have frowned upon the way Armstrong was used in the film.

Watch the movie clip

   Playing a bandleader who is hired by Crosby to perform at his nightclub, Armstrong’s “role, as written, makes one cringe,” according to Lawrence Bergreen. Bergreen quotes an exchange between Armstrong and Crosby in the film, comedically playing on the ignorance of Armstrong’s character, who asks for seven percent instead of accepting Bing’s offering of ten percent because his is a seven-piece band, “And none of us knows how to divide ten percent up by seven.” Bergreen writes that this banter dwells “on black inferiority and subservience” but what he doesn’t mention is that Pops legitimately loved this scene, quoting it in front of friends on one of his later private tapes. One of Armstrong’s last television appearances was made with Crosby on the David Frost Show from February 10, 1971. During the interview portion, Armstrong talks about how much fun they had making the film and though 35 years had gone by, Armstrong quotes the entire “percent” scene, line by line, as it originally appeared in the film. Thus, it’s easy for us to “cringe” while watching Pennies From Heaven but for Pops, funny was funny and he cherished the gags he was asked to deliver. Armstrong gets one music number to himself in the film and it’s a great one.
   “The Skeleton in the Closet” was written by Arthur Johnston and Johnny Burke, the same two men wrote the rest of the Pennies From Heaven score. Filmed in California, Armstrong was seen leading a contingent of some of the finest west coast jazzmen, including trumpeter (and Armstrong disciple) Teddy Buckner, saxophonist Caughey Roberts, future Nat Cole bassist Wesley Pince and as already advertised, the grand reunion of Armstrong and Lionel Hampton. Hampton was in the midst of a steady engagement as a leader at the Paradise Nightclub in Los Angeles and was just about to explode. Pennies From Heaven was filmed in August 1936 and while out there, Armstrong asked Hampton to sit in on drums and vibes on two Hawaiian cuts made with “The Polynesians” on August 18. One week later, on August 24, Hampton took part in a Teddy Wilson session with Benny Goodman on clarinet and just a few months later, in November, Hampton joined Goodman’s Quartet and, well, you know the rest! But for “Skeleton in the Closet,” Hamp sticks to the drums, wearing a mask to keep the whole “haunted house” motif going. This is Armstrong at his finest: storytelling, acting, singing, swinging and playing beautifully. On January 14, 1937, Armstrong underwent a throat operation, spending the next two weeks in the hospital. Satchmo was having throat issues (perhaps polyps?) because he sounds a hundred times more raspy later than he did on the original “Skeleton” record of just a few months earlier. The surgery might have been a success but when he returned, Armstrong’s voice was still pretty raspy and well, that was pretty much it for that. The rasp turned to gravel over the years, resulting in the true Satchmo voice most of the human race associates with Armstrong.
  ---  WINIFRED ATWELL - "Piano Liner's Boogie" was a ragtime piece recorded in London by Winifred Atwell in 1956 (one-sided, 10" 78rpm shellac test pressing -- #F10681, Decca Records).
BACKGROUND: Born in Trinidad (1914), Winifred Atwell was an accomplished and versatile pianist who was idolized by the British public throughout the 1950s. She had studied the piano since she had been a small child although she later became trained as a dispenser in the expectation that she would be employed in her father's pharmacist shop. By the age of 30 she became aware that other local musicians had gained further musical training abroad and, encouraged by this, in 1945 she left for the USA. By the late 1940s she had gained a place at London's Royal Academy of Music with ambitions of becoming a concert pianist. However, in order to finance this initiative she worked during the evenings at London's clubs playing piano rags. By 1950 her popularity had spread nationally and she began recording with Decca during 1951- before the advent of any record sales 'chart'. Her music also worked well on TV where she made regular appearances. She would normally start her act by playing a classical piece on a grand before transferring herself to what she called 'my other piano' which was an old 'honky tonk' upright. It was on this that she recorded many of her most successful numbers including her two #1's and the now legendary 'Black And White Rag' which has been used as the signature tune of BBC's 'Pot Black' snooker program for several decades.

  ---  JIMMY RUSHING with COUNT BASIE & HIS ORCHESTRA  - "The Blues I Like to Hear" (one-sided shellac test). This song was recorded in New York City with Jimmy Rushing on vocals -- November 16, 1938 (released on Decca 2284, Matrix #64748. Composed by Jimmy Rushing and arranged by Buster Smith. Count Basie and his Orchestra : Ed Lewis, Harry Edison, Buck Clayton, tp; Dicky Wells, Dan Minor, BennyMorton, tb; Earl Warren, as; Lester Young,Herschel Evans, ts; Jack Washington, bs, as; Count Basie, p; Freddie Green, g; Walter Page, b; Jo Jones, drums.
   BACKGROUND: Born James Andrew Rushing on August 26, 1903, in Oklahoma City, OK; died June 8, 1972, in New York, NY. Jazz vocalist. Pianist. Played in Southern California with Jelly Roll Morton, Harvey Brooks, and Paul Howard, 1920s; member of Walter Page Blue Devils band, 1927-29; joined Bennie Moten's orchestra, 1929-35; member of Count Basie Orchestra, 1935-50; toured with his own septet, 1950-52; as a solo act, 1952-72; Europe with Humphrey Littleton, Buck Clayton, Benny Goodman, 1961; Japan and Australia with Eddie Condon, 1964; appeared in film The Learning Tree, 1969; appeared at the Half Note in New York City playing with Al Cohn and Zoot Sims, early 1970s. Jimmy Rushing, also known as "Mr. Five by Five," (short height and wide girth) possessed ajoyous, booming voice that could be clearly heard over the swinging jazz orchestras of the big band era and beyond. He began his career as a piano player in the 1920s, but soon found his voice. He made his name with the Count Basie Orchestra in the 1940s, and enjoyed an active career singing solo and with jazz and big-band greats such as Humphrey Lyttleton, Buck Clayton, Benny Goodman, Eddie Condon, Al Cohn, and Zoot Sims, among others. He toured the United States and abroad, and his voice can be heard on countless recordings, including the most recent compilations The Essential Jimmy Rushing (1978), Mister Five by Five (1980), and The Classic Count (1982).

  --- Acetate test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the classic Louis Armstrong song, "When The Saints Go Marching In." This song is for Louis Armstrong's role in the film, New Orleans. Record matrix number is C-19, with C. Webb (Chick Webb) hand written on the label. Record Disc corporation recording disc is used. The date 1947. There have been over 1,000 recorded versions of this famous song, but Louis Armstrong's version is the best.
This version of "When The Saints Go Marching In" was for the motion picture New Orleans, a piece of Hollywood fluff that purported to tell the story of the origins of jazz in the titular city. It’s a mess of a movie but Pops lights up the screen and the music is often good. Three short takes of “The Saints” exist, all strictly instrumental and featuring Pops mainly playing the melody in a band that featured his former boss Kid Ory on trombone and future All Star Barney Bigard on clarinet. Armstrong sounds in wonderful form but the large group doesn’t exactly swing, instead marching along on top of heavy tuba beats. Armstrong sounds great riding over the ensemble. By April of 1947, New Orleans was getting ready to make its debut so Armstrong did a lot of promotion including an appearance on Rudi Blesh’s WOR radio show This is Jazz. The broadcast reunited Armstrong with many of his New Orleans cohorts, including clarinetist Albert Nicholas, bassist Pops Foster and drummer Baby Dodds. The song hadn’t exactly become a staple yet and Armstrong doesn’t seem to have played it much since the original recording nine years earlier. Thus, the arrangement follows the Decca record to a tee.

================= TEST PRESSINGS FROM OTHER LABELS =================

                 NAT KING COLE TRIO ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

  --- One-of-a-kind, historic test pressing (10" 78rpm) of Nat's first big hit "Straighten Up and Fly Right" (sold over 500,000 copies) and on the other side, I Just Can't See For Lookin'  by the Nat King Cole Trio. Recorded in Los Angeles on the brand new label, Capital Records (CAP 142A / CAP 123B), date is November 30, 1943.
Nathaniel Adams Coles (March 17, 1919 – February 15, 1965), known professionally as Nat "King" Cole, was an African American musician who first came to prominence as a leading jazz pianist. Although an accomplished pianist, he owes most of his popular musical fame to his soft baritone voice, which he used to perform in big band and jazz genres. He was one of the first African Americans to host a television variety show, and has maintained worldwide popularity since his death; he is widely considered one of the most important musical personalities in United States history.

Listen to Nat King Cole sing this song

   Nat King Cole's first mainstream vocal hit was his 1943 recording of one of his compositions, "Straighten Up and Fly Right," based on a black folk tale that his father had used as a theme for a sermon. Johnny Mercer invited him to record it for the fledgling Capital Records label. It sold over 500,000 copies, proving that folk-based material could appeal to a wide audience. Although Cole would never be considered a rocker, the song can be seen as anticipating the first rock and roll records. Indeed, Bo Diddley, who performed similar transformations of folk material, counted Cole as an influence.

   RACISM: Cole fought racism all his life and refused to perform in segregated venues. In 1956, he was assaulted on stage during a concert in Birmingham, AL, (while singing the song "Little Girl") by three members of the North Alabama White Citizens Council (a group led by Education of Little Tree author, Asa "Forrest Carter, himself not among the attackers), who apparently were attempting to kidnap him. The three male attackers ran down the aisles of the auditorium towards Cole and his band. Although local law enforcement quickly ended the invasion of the stage, the ensuing melée toppled Cole from his piano bench and injured his back. Cole did not finish the concert and never again performed in the South. A fourth member of the group who had participated in the plot was later arrested in connection with the act. All were later tried and convicted for their roles in the crime.
In 1956 he was contracted to perform in Cuba and wanted to stay at the Hotel Nacional de Cuba, Havana, but was not allowed to because it operated a color bar. Cole honored his contract, however, and the concert at the Tropicana was a huge success. The following year, he returned to Cuba for another concert, singing many songs in Spanish. There is now a tribute to him in the form of a bust and a jukebox in the Hotel Nacional.

                 DAN GRISSOM ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  --- Hard-to-find two-sided test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the songs, "Recess in Heaven" and "Why I Must Adore You" by Dan Grissom -- Matrix #JRC 275 and JRC 276, on the relatively new label, Columbia Records. Recorded in Los Angeles on December 13, 1947. On the songs are Bumps Myers (ts), Sylvester Scott (p), Buddy Harper (g, hca, ldr), Joe Comfort, and (b) Earl Hyde (d) -- with Dan Grissom on vocals.
  >>> Two genuine Columbia Records 78rpm record (#38351) with "Recess in Heaven" and "Why I Must Adore You" by Dan Grissom.
    BACKGROUND: Dan Grissom
is best-known as a vocalist and alto sax player with the Jimmie Lunceford Orchestra, but also sang with Duke Ellington for a half-dozen years and released an occasional single under his own name on labels such as Imperial. He was rather uncharitably nicknamed “Dan Gruesome” by jazz fans who were less than enamored by his song stylings. From 1945 onwards he made records as a vocalist for various small labels in Los Angeles. Actually, Grissom represented a new type of jazz vocalist who came about more because of technological innovations than progressive musical thinking.

Dan Grissom


  Around 1933, microphones came into use, allowing singers such as Dan Grissom or the Claude Hopkins frontman Orlando Robeson to carry on over the sound of a full band; neither man had the lungs to belt out lyrics over the top of the band the way pre-microphone "blues shouters" did. There was nothing loud about Grissom's singing style, described in a survey of Ellington vocalists as displaying "pinched-tones and heavy vibrato." Actually, he wasn't the only big-band singer in the Grissom lineage. His uncle Jimmy Grissom also sang with Lunceford, and was just about as busy on records as his nephew, with somewhat less negative critical feedback. Dan Grissom joined the Lunceford band in 1935 and stayed on through the early '40s. The Sy Oliver arrangement of "By the River Sainte Marie" was supposedly Grissom's personal favorite amongst the stacks of songs he interpreted for Lunceford, though that might not mean it is any less gruesome. It was roughly a decade later that Grissom joined Ellington, staying through 1957, and among other accomplishments, recording a version of Ellington's tune "Love (My Everything)," also known as "My Heart, My Mind, My Everything." Vocal wonder boy Johnny Mathis was reportedly influenced by Grissom from this period. Under his own name, Grissom pitied the "Poor Butterfly" in the mid-'40s with backing from the Flennoy Trio, a combo led by Lorenzo Flennoy on piano. Dan Grissom & the Ebb Tones put out a single on Million in 1955 featuring the same song on this test pressing "Recess in Heaven," and there is also a rare Imperial single featuring Grissom's tribute to the "King of Fools."


                 LEADBELLY ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  --- A British test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the song "The Boll Weevil" (side A) and "The Bourgeois Blues" (side B) by blues musician, Huddie Ledbetter...better known as Leadbelly (1885-1949), October 15, 1934, Both songs were written and performed by Leadbelly. Working as a driver and field assistant, Leadbelly recorded the song, Boll Weevil for Alan Lomax in Shreveport, LA and again the following year in Wilton, CT. This version has since been covered by dozens of artists, from Tex Ritter to Woodie Guthrie to the White Stripes, who ended almost every live performance with the tune. A 1961 version by Brook Benton became a #2 pop hit.

Listen to "The Bourgeois Blues"

  >>> A genuine Musicraft 78rpm record with "The Bourgeois Blues" and "The Boll Weevil" by Leadbelly.
"The Bourgeois Blues" was written after Lead Belly went to Washington, DC at the request of Alan Lomax, to record a number of songs for the Library of Congress. After they had finished, they decided to go out with their wives to celebrate, but were thrown out of numerous establishments for being an interracial party. The song rails against racism, classism, and discrimination in general, with such verses as "The home of the Brave / The land of the Free / I don't wanna be mistreated by no "bourgeoisie."
Lyrics:  Me and my wife went all over town, And everywhere we went people turned us down. Lord, in a bourgeois town. It's a bourgeois town, I got the bourgeois blues. Gonna spread the news all around. Well, me and my wife we were standing upstairs, We heard the white man say'n I don't want no niggers up there. Lord, in a bourgeois town. Uhm, bourgeois town. I got the bourgeois blues. Gonna spread the news all around. Home of the brave, land of the free. I don't wanna be mistreated by no bourgeoisie. Lord, in a bourgeois town. Uhm, the bourgeois town. I got the bourgeois blues. Gonna spread the news all around. Well, them white folks in Washington they know how To call a colored man a nigger just to see him bow. Lord, it's a bourgeois town. Uhm, the bourgeois town. I got the bourgeois blues. Gonna spread the news all around. I tell all the colored folks to listen to me. Don't try to find you no home in Washington, DC, 'Cause it's a bourgeois town. Uhm, the bourgeois town. I got the bourgeois blues. Gonna spread the news all around.
  --- Test Pressing (10" 78rpm) of Lead Belly's  "Frankie and Albert (Part One)" and the acapella version of "Looky, Looky, Yonder / Black Betty / Yellow Woman's Doorbell" medley. 1939. Lyrics: Looky looky yonder, Looky looky yonder, Looky looky yonder, Where the sun done gone. The cap'in' (captain) can't hold 'em ("him" or "them"), Cap'in' can't hold 'em, Cap'in' can't hold 'em, The way I do. Yes Addie gotta (got a) gold mine, Addie gotta gold mine, Addie gotta gold mine, Way above her knee.
"Frankie and Albert"
tells the story of a woman, Frankie, who finds that her man Johnny was "making love to" another woman and shoots him dead. Frankie is then arrested; in some versions of the song she is also executed. The first published version of the music to "Frankie and Johnny" appeared in 1904, credited to and copyrighted by Hughie Cannon. At least 256 different recordings of "Frankie and Johnny" have been made since the early 20th century, including the Leadbelly version with "Frankie and Albert."

    BIO: Ledbetter, born on Jan. 29, 1885 on the Jeter Plantation near Mooringsport, La., would spend several stints in jail, once reportedly lived as a recluse from the law under an assumed name, and was known to resolve every-day conflict with violence right up until his early passing on Dec. 6, 1949. He had a huge impact upon British rock-n-roll musicians.
LIONEL HAMPTON  &  LOUIE JORDAN ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  --- Extremely rare test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the song (unissued take) "On The Sunny Side of the Street" by Lionel Hampton & his Orchestra and on the other side "Ain't That Just Like a Woman" by Louie Jordan & his Tympany Five, which was #4 on the "Most Played Juke Box Race Records" Billboard charts in 1947. Recorded on Duo Disc, date is March 29, 1947. Lionel Hampton and Louie Jordan's names and song titles are hand-written in period ink. Rare and possibly one of a kind acetate (aluminum) test pressing of two jazz greats on one test pressing! Acetate only has a certain number of plays before it becomes unsable.
  >>> A genuine RCA/Victor 78rpm record (#25592) with "On The Sunny Side of the Street" by Lionel Hampton and His Orchestra.
  Lionel Hampton:On the Sunny Side of the Street” appeared on the pop charts first by Ted Lewis and His Orchestra in February of 1930. Shortly after, Harry Richman’s recording (which had “Exactly Like You” on the B-side) climbed to number thirteen. The strength of “On the Sunny Side of the Street” is its surprising and inventive melody. Regardless of who wrote the music, there is no denying the song’s tone is cheerful, buoyant, and bouncy. With Dorothy Fields’ casual, optimistic lyrics, “On the Sunny Side of the Street” was a perfect pick-me-up for depression-weary listeners. In spite of its occasional characterization as a bumptious novelty song, “On the Sunny Side of the Street” has been a favorite of jazz greats, musicians and instrumentalists since its publication -- including Lionel Hampton!
  Louie Jordan: His f
irst recordings were released under the name "Louie Jordan and his Elks Rendez-vous Band" but by the time of the next recording session, the name became "Louis Jordan and his Tympany Five"  This new name maintaining the misspelling of "tympani" from their club billing.  From this time forward, his band was always known as the "Tympany Five" regardless of the actual number of members. As early as 1946 Jordan was adding electric guitar to the mix resulting in songs such as "Ain't That Just Like a Woman." The humor and energy that permeates so many of Jordan's recordings is a hallmark of the early Rock 'n' Roll sound.
SARAH VAUGHAN ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  --- Scarce one-sided test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the song, "Make Yourself Comfortable," #10745 Mercury Records. Sarah Vaughan with orchestra conducted by Hugh Peretti, dated September 24, 1954. Recorded in New York City. Vaughan's commercial success at Mercury began with this particular of her biggest hits.
  >>> A genuine Mercury 78rpm records with "Make Yourself Comfortable" by Sarah Vaughan.
                 SARAH VAUGHAN with the GEORGE TREADWELL BAND ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  --- Acetate test pressing (10" 78rpm) of one of her signature tunes of surrender, "Everything I Have Is Yours," #C-19 Musicraft Records. Sarah Vaughan with the George Treadwell Band, dated November 8, 1947. Matrix #5615. George was Sarah's first husband and she was married to him from 1946-1957. This song was recorded during their first year of marriage.
  >>> Two genuine Musicraft 78rpm records (#5615) with "Everything I Have is Yours" by Sarah Vaughan.
     BIO: Possessor of one of the most wondrous voices of the 20th century, Sarah Vaughan ranked with Ella Fitzgerald and Billie Holiday in the very top echelon of female jazz singers. She often gave the impression that with her wide range, perfectly controlled vibrato, and wide expressive abilities, she could do anything she wanted with her voice. Sarah Vaughan's legacy as a performer and a recording artist will be very difficult to match in the future. Her parents were Asbury, a carpenter, and Ada, a laundress. She began studying music when she was seven, taking eight years of piano lessons (1931-39) and two years of organ. As a child, she sang in the choir at the Mt. Zion Baptist Church in Newark, and played piano and organ in high school productions at Arts High School. She developed into a capable keyboardist. After she won an amateur contest at the Apollo Theater, she was hired for the Earl Hines big band as a singer and second vocalist. Unfortunately, the musicians' recording strike kept her off record during this period (1943-44). When lifelong friend Billy Eckstine broke away to form his own orchestra, Vaughan joined him, making her recording debut. She loved being with Eckstine's orchestra, where she became influenced by a couple of his sidemen, Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie, both of whom had also been with Hines during her stint. Vaughan was one of the first singers to fully incorporate bop phrasing in her singing, and to have the vocal chops to pull it off on the level of a Parker and Gillespie. Other than a few months with John Kirby from 1945-46, Sarah Vaughan spent the remainder of her career as a solo star. Although she looked a bit awkward in 1945 (her first husband George Treadwell would greatly assist her with her appearance), there was no denying her incredible voice.
                 ELLA FITZGERALD with CHICK WEBB & HIS ORCHESTRA ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  --- Single-sided test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the song "All My Life" by a very young 18-year-old Ella Fitzgerald with Chick Webb and His Orchestra (1905-1935). Recorded in New York City on March 17, 1936. The orchestra included Mario Bauza, Bobby Stark, Taft Jordan, tp; Sandy Williams, Nat Story, tb; Pete Clark, Edgar Sampson, as; Teddy McRae, ts; Wayman Carver, ts; fl; Don Kirkpatrick, p; John Trueheart, g; Bill Thomas, b; Chick Webb, d; Ella Fitzgerald, voc.
    BIO: Ella Fitzgerald (1917-1996). A performance at the Apollo Theater’s famed Amateur Night in 1934 set Fitzgerald’s career in motion. Over the next seven decades, she worked with some of the most important artists in the music industry including Duke Ellington, Louis Armstrong, Dizzy Gillespie and Frank Sinatra. She was dubbed “The First Lady of Jazz” for her mainstream popularity and unparalleled vocal talents—even though her less–than–svelte appearance and upbeat singing style was in contrast to the sultry and bluesy female singers of her day. Her unique ability for mimicking instrumental sounds helped popularize the vocal improvisation of “scatting,” which became her signature technique. Ella recorded over 200 albums and around 2,000 songs in her lifetime, singing the works of some of the most popular composers such as Cole Porter, Gershwin and Irving Berlin. Ella Fitzgerald died in 1996 at the age of 79, and is remembered as one of the most influential jazz artists of the 20th century.
                 ELLA FITZGERALD with RANDY BROOKS & HIS ORCHESTRA ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  --- Single-sided test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the song "A Kiss Goodnight" by Ella Fitzgerald with Randy Brooks and His Orchestra (MX #73020 Decca, Label #18713). This song was recorded on August 29, 1945. There is a slight hairline crack on one half of the disc, but it still playes.
                 MORTON'S RED HOT PEPPERS ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

  --- Two-sided test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the songs, "Beale Street Blues" and "The Pearls" -- #20948-A & #20948-B, Victor Records. Morton's Red Hot Peppers, dated July 10, 1927 Recorded in Chicago. The recordings made in Chicago featured some of the best New Orleans sidemen like Kid Ory, Barney Bigard, Johnny Dodds, Johnny St. Cyr and Baby Dodds. A native of New orleans, Jelly Roll Morton was the first great composer and piano player of Jazz. He was a talented arranger who wrote special scores that took advantage of the three-minute limitations of the 78 rpm records. But more than all these things, he was a real character whose spirit shines brightly through history, like his diamond studded smile.
  --- Two-sided test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the songs "Beale Street. Blues" and "The Pearls" (vinyl test for a HJCA reissue)

Jelly Roll Morton's Red Hot Peppers 1926
Morton's Red Hot Peppers


                 LEROY CARR ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  --- Single-sided test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the song "Black Gal (What Makes Your Head So Hard?)" by Leroy Carr (1905-1935), blues singer, songwriter and pianist, best known for his first release on Vocalion in 1928 at 23 years of age. Bluebird #15646, 1934.Joe Pullem wrote this particular song and recorded it first, but Leroy came out with his own version that very same year -- a year before he died. Lyrics: Black gal, black gal, What makes yo' head so hard? Black gal, woman, What makes yo' head so hard? Lord, I would come to see you, But your bad man has got me barred.
BENNIE MOTEN'S KANSAS CITY ORCHESTRA ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  --- Very rare acetate test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the unreleased tune "My Old Flame" by band leader Bennie Moten (1894-1935), noted American jazz pianist and band leader born in Kansas City, MO. Dated May 15, 1946. On the label is written that the other players on this song are: Ben Webster, Barney Bigard, Ben Webster and the super bassist, Israel Crosby (Ahmad Jamal and George Shearing fame).
  --- Hard-to-find single-sided vinyl test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the song, "South" by Bennie Moten's Kansas City Orchestra (1894-1935). Bennie was a noted American jazz pianist and band leader born in Kansas City, Missouri. Moten's popular 1928 recording of "South" (V-38021) stayed in Victor's catalog over the years (as #24893) and became a big jukebox hit in the late 1940s (by then, reissued as #44-0004). It remained in print (as a vinyl 45) until RCA stopping making records.
  >>> A genuine Victor 78rpm record (#24893) with "South" by Bennie Moten's Kansas City Orchestra.
BIO: Bennie Moten led the Kansas City Orchestra, the most important of the itinerant, blues-based orchestras active in the Midwest in the 1920s, and helped to develop the riffing style that would come to define many of the 1930s Big Bands. His first recordings were made (for Okeh Records) in 1923, and were rather stiff interpretations of the New Orleans style of King Oliver and others. They also showed the influence of the Ragtime that was still popular in the area. His OKeh sides (recorded 1923-1925) are some of the more valuable acoustic jazz 78's of the era and continue to be treasured records in many serious jazz collections. They next recorded in 1926 for Victor Records in NJ, and were influenced by the more sophisticate style of Fletcher Henderson, but more often than not featured a hard stomp beat that was extremely popular. Moten remained one of Victor's most popular orchestras through 1930. By 1928 Moten's piano was showing some Boogie Woogie influences, but the real revolution came in 1929 when he recruited Count Basie, Walter page and Oran "Hot Lips" Page. Walter Page's walking bass lines gave the music an entirely new feel compared to the 2/4 tuba of his predecessor Vernon Page, colored by Basie's understated, syncopated piano fills.
REV. J. M. GATES ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  --- Rare single-sided test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the sermon "Scat to the Cat and Suie to the Hog" recorded in 1930 by Rev. J. M. Gates (1885-1941), Master test pressing of Okeh matrix 480014-A, which is a transfer of matrix 403932-B. It was issued on Okeh 8844. Why did the curiously titled "Scat to the Cat and Suie to the Hog" get such a limited release? Perhaps it was too much comedy and charm to match Okeh's idea of even a rustic sermon? The main message of the sermon was simply that people ought not to snap, nark, and claw at one another.
The Baptist preacher J. M. Gates was one of the most prolifically recorded black artists of the early century, with over 200 sides on wax between the mid-'20s and his death in 1940 (he once recorded 23 titles in a week, at just two sessions). His sermons and musical numbers appeared on a variety of labels (Victor, Bluebird, Okeh, Gennett), though Gates often re-recorded his most popular sermons — "Death's Black Train Is Coming," "Oh Death Where Is Thy Sting," "Goin' to Die with the Staff in My Hands" — for multiple labels. Gates ministered at Atlanta's Calvary Church and first recorded in 1926. Beginning in April, he recorded almost 100 sides by the end of the year. Understandably, his output slowed slightly during the rest of the late '20s, and the advent of the Great Depression resulted in a four-year period off records. He returned in 1934, and recorded about 20 more sides until his death in 1941. Experts estimate that Gates recorded at least a quarter of all the sermons that appeared before 1943. Gates is credited with introducing the gospel music of former blues artist, Thomas A. Dorsey, into the black gospel market via his crusades. His funeral drew the largest crowd of any memorial service in the city before Martin Luther King, Jr.

                 CLARENCE WILLIAMS' BLUE FIVE ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  --- Single-sided test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the song "Thriller Blues" by Clarence Williams' Blue Five. (1893 - 1965), with wife, Eva Taylor on vocals.  RCA/Victor #BS-071199-1, 1941.
  >>> A genuine Bluebird 78rpm record (#11368) with "Thriller Blues" by Clarence William's Five, with vocals by Eva Taylor.
    BIO: Although he was quite spirited playing jug, Clarence Williams was a decent pianist, composer and dancer. He was a likable but limited vocalist. He was also a business manager for other Black entertainers, and an independent entrepreneur (who had his own Music Publishing firm). A fascinating figure and one of the most successful black businessmen of the era, Clarence Williams had a real ear for talent. During 1923 to 1928, he was the artist and repertoire director for Okeh Records. Before he was in his teens, he had decided upon a career in show business and ran away from home to work with a traveling minstrel show. By the time he was 21 he had started composing, formed his first publishing company, and was married to Blues singer Eva Taylor (1923).

Clarence Williams

   At the height of his power in the early '30s, Clarence Williams' importance waned as the decade continued and swing took over. After 1937, he only appeared on one final session (two songs in 1941), concentrating on the business side of music. In 1943, he sold his company to Decca and became a shop owner in Harlem. Williams was seriously injured when hit by a taxi in 1956 and passed away in 1965.

                 EARL HINES ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  --- Fascinating single-sided test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the song "Rosetta" by Earl "Fatha" Hines. (1903 - 1983),  RCA/Victor #BS-040480-3, 1939. Pianist/composer/bandleader Earl “Fatha” Hines first recorded “Rosetta” with his orchestra on October 21, 1939. The lyrics were written by his band’s arranger Henri Woode. Western swing bandleader Bob Wills contributed to the popularity of “Rosetta,” which he first recorded in 1938 and which became the theme song of his Texas Playboys as well as the name of his daughter, born in 1940. As the simple lyric attests, “Rosetta” is a love song: Rosetta, my Rosetta, In my heart, dear, there’s no one but you. You made my whole life a dream, and I pray you’ll make it come true...

Earl Hines plays "Rosetta"

  >>> A genuine RCA/Victor 78rpm record (#040480-3) with "Rosetta" by Earl "Fatha" Hines.
                 TITUS TURNER ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  --- Scarce double-sided test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the songs "Jambalaya" (side A) and "Please, Baby" (side B) by Titus Turner (1933 - 1984), with Danny Kessler orchestra while he was only 19 years of age. Okeh #4-6907, 1952. Turner – though no slouch in the performing department – made his mark as a writer of some of absolutely dynamite songs, among them ‘Sticks and Stones’, ‘All Around the World’ (aka Grits Ain’t Groceries), and ‘Leave My Kitten Alone’. Turner himself had a two decade long career as a recording artist, spending most of the 50s recording mostly for Okeh and King, and then the 60s recording for no less than a dozen different imprints. Turner originally recorded ‘People Sure Act Funny’ for the Enjoy label in 1962.
MERLINE JOHNSON "THE YAS YAS GIRL" ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  --- An almost-impossible-to-find single-sided shellac test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the song "Squeeze Me Tight" by Merline Johnson "The Yas Yas Girl" (1912 - ?), with George Barnes (el guitar) prob. Blind John Davis (piano) and unknown (bass) Apparently made by or for Vocalion #C-2170-1, 1938.
During the late '30s, one Chicago-based blues woman cut more records than either Memphis Minnie or Georgia White, and even edged in on Blue Lu Barker with a smart cover of her most famous hit, "Don't You Make Me High." The aunt of R&B vocalist LaVern Baker, Merline Johnson was usually billed as the Yas Yas Girl, a bawdy nickname that utilized a favorite early blues euphemism for your butt. Little is known of this singer's origins, her life during a brief but productive heyday, or her eventual fate. Legend has it she first saw the light of day somewhere in the state of Mississippi during the year 1912. After making her way to Chicago, she established herself as a sanguine, straightforward blues vocalist whose backup bands were often peppered with seasoned jazz musicians who were capable of swinging hard when necessary, and sometimes launched into full-strength boogie-woogie. After cutting six sides as Merline Johnson for Bluebird in May 1937, she commenced recording for the American Record Corporation a few weeks later as the Yas Yas Girl, already demonstrating an innate ability to put across blues and jazzy dance tunes convincingly, with a combination of honesty and warmth that is still very effective. Between 1938 and 1941 Merline Johnson waxed more than 50 titles for Vocalion and OKeh, covering the standard topical range of Chicago blues. She sang of passionate and at times turbulent interpersonal relationships, of unencumbered sexuality, and of unapologetic alcohol consumption. Her accompanists, drawn from a pool of experts from New Orleans and Chicago, included trumpeters Punch Miller and Lee Collins; saxophonists Buster Bennett and Bill Owsley; guitarists Big Bill Broonzy, George Barnes, and Lonnie Johnson; Vocalion's resident steel guitarist Casey Bill Weldon; pianists Blind John Davis, Black Bob Hudson, and Aletha Robinson; string bassists Ransom Knowling and Bill Settles; an interesting character named Alfred Elkins who carried a bassline really well using only his voice; and a rock-solid drummer by the name of Fred Williams. Aside from one final session in 1947, most of this woman's recorded legacy dates from the years and months prior to the U.S.A.'s direct involvement in the Second World War.
                 ERNIE WILKINS & HIS ORCHESTRA ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  --- Test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the song "Blue Jeans Blues" (side A) and "Have You Ever Been Lonely?" (side B) by Ernie Wilkins & his Orchestra. Savoy #1524, September 6, 1957, recorded in New York City. Ernie's orchestra members: Jim Dahl, Al Grey, Rod Levitt, Melba Liston (tb) Ernie Wilkins (as, arr, dir) Don Abney (p) Al Lucas (b) Charlie Persip (d) 6 unknown (vo)
DUKE ELLINGTON & HIS ORCHESTRA ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  --- Extremely rare test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the song, "Blue Ramble," #B11866B. Duke Ellington and his orchestra, dated May 18, 1932. Columbia.
MARVIN GAYE & SISTER SLEDGE ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  --- Test pressing remix import (12'' LP) B-Boy House edit #HEDIT001A. Side A: Marvin Gaye -- "Too Busy Thinking About My Baby." Side B: Sister Sledge -- "All American Girls."
ANITA BAKER ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  --- One-sided test pressing (12" LP) of "Watch Your Step" by Anita Baker. Specialty Records #ED-5132, dated February 4, 1986.
                 BILLIE HOLIDAY & HER ORCHESTRA ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  --- Extremely rare test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the song "All of Me" (side A) and "Romance in the Dark" (side B) by Billie Holiday & her Orchestra. Okeh #6214, 1941, written by Gerald Marks and Seymour Simons.  Lyrics: You took my kisses and all my love. You taught me how to care. Am I to be just remnant of a one side love affair. All you took, I gladly gave, There is nothing left for me to save. All of me, Why not take all of me, Can't you see I'm no good without you. Take my lips, I want to loose them. Take my arms, I'll never use them. Your goodbye left me with eyes that cry. How can I go on dear without you. You took the part that once was my heart, So why not take all of me
ETHEL WATERS ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  --- One-of-a-kind test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the song, "Come Up and See Me Sometime," Brunswick #6885, Matrix: B-14956-C. Ethel Waters and the Brunswick Studio Band, in New York City, dated March 16, 1934. Brunswick. Frank Guarante or Charlie Margulis, Bunny Berigan (tp), Frank Luther Trio (Frank Luther, Zora Layman, Leonard Stokes).
   BIO: Ethel Waters was one of the most popular African-American singers and actresses of the 1920s. She moved to New York in 1919 after touring in vaudeville shows as a singer and a dancer. She made her recording debut in 1921 on Cardinal records with "The New York Glide" and "At the New Jump Steady Ball," but switched over to African-American owned Black Swan label, and recorded "Down Home Blues" and "Oh Daddy" the first Blues numbers for that company. She frequently sang with Fletcher Henderson during the early 1920s, but by the mid-1920s Waters had became more of a pop singer. She performed in a number of musical revues throughout the rest of the decade and appeared a couple of films, including "Check and Double Check" with Amos 'n' Andy and Duke Ellington. By the end of the 1930s she was a big star on Broadway. In 1949, she was nominated for an Oscar for best supporting actress in the film "Pinky", and the next year she won the New York Drama Critics Award for best actress. Waters became a Christian in the late Fifties and performed and toured with evangelist Billy Graham until her death in 1977.
TINY BRADSHAW, HIS PIANO AND BAND ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  --- Test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the jazz/blues songs, "Powder Puff," and "Ping Pong" #4687, Matrix #K9320. Tiny Bradshaw, his Piano and Band, dated 1950s. Dee Jay King Special. Sylvester Austin on tenor sax.
LOUIS ARMSTRONG & HIS ORCHESTRA ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  --- Extremely rare master single-sided test pressing (11" 78rpm) of the song "Home (When Shadows Fall)" by Louis Armstrong & his Orchestra. Columbia control #405132, January 27, 1932, recorded in Chicago, IL. with Louis Armstrong (Trumpet, Vocal). Zilner Randolph (Trumpet), Preston Jackson (Trombone), Lester Boone (Clarinet, Alto Saxophone), George James (Reeds), Albert Washington (Clarinet, Tenor Saxophone), Charlie Alexander (Piano), Mike McKendrick (Banjo, Guitar), John Lindsay (Bass) and Tubby Hall (Drums).

                 LUIS RUSSELL'S HOT SIX ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


   --- Scarce double-sided test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the songs "Sweet Mumtaz" (side A) and "Dolly Mine" (side B) by Luis Russell and his Hot Six. Okeh #8454, November 17, 1926. Turner – though no slouch in the performing department – made his mark as a writer of some of absolutely dynamite songs, among them ‘Sticks and Stones’, ‘All Around the World’ (aka Grits Ain’t Groceries), and ‘Leave My Kitten Alone’. Turner himself had a two decade long career as a recording artist, spending most of the 50s recording mostly for Okeh and King, and then the 60s recording for no less than a dozen different imprints. Turner originally recorded ‘People Sure Act Funny’ for the Enjoy label in 1962.


  BACKGROUND: The Luis Russell Orchestra started in Chicago and then moved to New York. They were one of the most innovative bands of their day, but never had the commercial success that they deserved. They are generally considered to be one of the first Swing bands. The outfit featured some of the best hot musicians from New Orleans, such as Barney Bigard, Omer Simeon and Pops Foster. The band first backed up Louis Armstrong in 1929 on the record "Mahogany Hall Stomp" -- which this collection also owns (see above).

                  SUGAR RAY ROBINSON ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  --- One-sided audio test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the famous boxer, Sugar Ray Robinson's appearance in "Excursion" an NBC TV series of 26 shows for young people ages 8-16, designed to give them stimulating views of world literature, science, sports, art, theater, career-building, and government, with Americans who have made distinguished contributions in these fields acting as guests. This particular show aired during the week of August 25th, 1953. Dick Charles Recording Studios, located at 729 Seventh Avenue, New York. These were test scenes for the 1953 TV Episode of Huckleberry Finn, which co-starred boxing champion Sugar Ray Robinson as Jim. Sugar Ray Robinson was expanding on his career by branching out in print advertising, television and film. Mr. Robinson was a handsome natural, that the cameras adored. Robinson retired from professional boxing in December 1953 to become a dancer.
By the 1950s, Dick Charles had opened a recording studio on Seventh Avenue in New York City, a block away from Broadway. It was here that a good number of demos of up and coming stars were cut before the stars were signed by the big record labels. Here, both Dick Charles (Richard Krieg and Richard Waldspurger) worked with many famous and not quite so famous musicians and performers.
                 FATS WALLER ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

  --- Scarce double-sided Gramophone test pressing (10" 78rpm) of the songs "Breakin' The Ice" (side A) and "Honeysuckle Rose" (side B) by Fats Waller and His Rhythm (1904 - 1943). A British test pressing. Brunswick #24826, November 7, 1934.
BACKGROUND: Born in New York City with the given name Thomas Wright Waller, "Fats" Waller was the son of a churchman. He learned how to play the organ in church with his mother, Adeline Waller, who gave him a background in classical music. Fats' first musical experience was playing harmonium for his father's Abyssinian Baptist Church at 10 years of age. The music which Fats later picked up around Harlem was viewed by his father as "music from the Devil's workshop."

Waller singing "Honeysuckle Rose"


           Fats Waller

In 1918 Waller won a talent contest playing James P. Johnson's "Carolina Shout" which he learned from watching a pianola play the song. Later, when Johnson met Fats for the first time and heard him play the pipe organ, he told his wife, "I know I can teach that boy." So Johnson took Waller under his wing and within months had improved his play and introduced him to his first Harlem rent party. Waller was such a diligent and lonesome pupil that he would practice on the Johnson's piano until 3 or 4 o'clock in the morning--when Mrs. Johnson would finally order him to go home. In 1922, Johnson had been asked to take over the piano at Leroy's, a club at Fifth Avenue and 135th Street where Willie the Lion Smith had been playing. But Johnson was going out of town with a show and he recommended his 18 year old protégé for the job. This was Waller's night club debut. But he was ready because by this time, Fats had developed into an all-around keyboard dynamo who was playing theater organ for silent movies and stage shows (at Harlem's Lincoln Theater), accompanying singers, backing up dancers in chorus lines, vaudeville revues and nightclubs, and playing blistering stride piano at rent parties. Though his skills on the piano introduced him to fame, it wasn't until after Fats started to sing that he became famous. From 1930 to 1943, Fats made over five hundred recordings and he was recognized from the streets of Harlem to Danish nightclubs as he toured extensively and appeared on numerous radio broadcasts as well as in some Hollywood feature films. Fats unexpectedly died on board a train near Kansas City, Missouri of pneumonia on Dec 15, 1943. Usually remembered as a genial clown, he is of lasting importance as one of the greatest of all jazz pianists and as a gifted songwriter, whose work in both fields was rhythmically contagious.


  •   --- DON BYAS & HIS RE-BOPPERS - "How High the Moon" and "Dynamo A" (#ST1896 & ST1900, by Don Byas -- white label two-sided shellac test of recordings made on January 27, 1947 at Studio Technisonor in Paris). Peanuts Holland (tp) Don Byas (ts) Billy Taylor (p) Jean-Jacques Tilche (g) Jean Bouchety (b) Buford Oliver (d).
  •   --- EARL BOSTIC - Sleep (#4444 single-sided vinyl test pressing recorded in 1951). Earl Bostic (1913-1965) was an American jazz and rhythm and blues alto saxaphonist, and a pioneer of the post-war American Rhythm and Blues style. He was a major influence on John Coltrane. He had a number of popular hits such as "Flamingo", "Harlem Nocturne", "Temptation", "Sleep" and "Where or When", which showed off his characteristic growl on the horn. Bostic recorded for Cincinnati-based King Records, a small label that was well known for releasing "R and B" and Bluegrass records. In fact, the biggest star on the King label was "the Godfather of Soul," James Brown. Bostic was also popular among R&B and jazz followers in the United Kingdom, thanks to his records that were released on the Parlophone label. King Records was rewarded for its devotion to Bostic and his music in 1951, when “Sleep” (a song from the 1920s) went to Number Six on the R&B chart.
  •   --- JACK TEAGARDEN & ORCHESTRA - "River Home" (#ST1867-1, white label one-sided shellac test of recordings made on July, 1940. In 1940, Jack Teagarden recorded sixteen sides for Varsity, which were reissued in 1986 by Savoy Jazz. During these sessions, his orchestra included Nat Jaffe on piano.
    BACKGROUND: (Weldon Leo Teagarden), 1905–1964, American jazz trombonist and singer, b. Vernon, Tex. One of the earliest White bluesmen, he came from a jazz-playing family and was mainly self-taught. He sometimes played with his brothers, trumpeter Charlie and drummer Cub, and sister, pianist Norma. In his twenties Teagarden wandered across America's Southwest, playing in several jazz groups, and arrived in New York in 1927. He played in bands led by Ben Pollack (1928–33), Paul Whiteman (1933–38), and Louis Armstrong (1947–51), and also led his own groups (1939–47; 1951–57). He began recording in the late 1920s and made many albums throughout his career. Teagarden was one of the great horn players of the mid-20th cent.; his trombone playing, seemingly effortless yet extremely accomplished technically, was uniquely smooth and lyrical. In addition, his somewhat gruff, drawling voice was ideal for singing the blues.
  •   --- DAVEY DEX on DA SET - "Dee Dottie Day" Test pressing (AV8 Records) by Davey Dex of this and other rap/hip hop songs (1996). Instrumental Cut-up/DJ. He is a producer, DJ from NYC. A DJ for 20 years, He plays Hip-Hop/R&B, Reggaeton Classic House, Classic Freestyle, Smooth Jazz. As a Producer, He produces mostly Hip-Hop Beats and Party Records but has produced House as well. With over 30 records under his belt. He has produced records since 1990.
  •   --- ORO "TUT" SOPER - "Right Kind of Love" by Oro Spher. (Steiner-Davis acetate recorded in Jack Gardner's apartment with drummer Warren "Baby" Dodds on January 31, 1944 in Chicago). John Steiner and Hugh Davis teamed Soper up with Dodds in pianist Jack Gardner’s apartment for the session. Gardner owned a particularly fine piano, which is why the session was held in his place, at 102 East Bellevue, a basement apartment located in the same apartment complex as John Steiner. Jazz fans tend to revel in improvisation, and Down Beat columnist George Hoefer loved the idea at how "impromptu" the recording was, as Soper and Dodds had never met before, and had feel each other out in the recording process. Little is known about Tut Soper, and he seems to have made very few recordings. Tut proceeded to develop his career as a popular solo act. He found additional work with reedmen Bud Freeman, Boyce Brown, and Orville "Bud" Jacobson, and with trumpeter Johnny Mendel.  Tut also performed with drummer Danny Alvin and with Frank Snyder, who played drums with the New Orleans Rhythm Kings in 1922. While hot jazz was artistically rewarding, Tut found greater monetary security working with popular hotel-orchestra leader George Olsen. The great recorded legacy of this grievously overlooked pianist consists of six duets he recorded with master percussionist Warren "Baby" Dodds. Five of these sides, recorded January 31, 1944, can be found on Jazz & Blues Piano Vol. 2: 1924-1947. With Tut sounding at times a bit like Earl Hines, these tasty stomps provide a tangible context for his reputation as a mainstay of traditional Chicago jazz. The only other session involving this pianist that has come to light is a 1957 Dixie revival date led by guitarist/vocalist Marty Grosz, released on Riverside as Hooray for Bix!  and reissued in 2000 on the Good Time Jazz label. Tut's impact upon the evolution of jazz in Chicago was greater than this handful of obscure phonograph records can ever demonstrate. His story serves as a reminder that the real history of this music is a mosaic of many individual lives; it runs much deeper and is far more intricate than the standard pantheon of famous names and familiar faces.
  •   --- BUSTER BAILEY - "Eccentric Rag" (single-sided shellac test recorded in New York, dated 1940). Buster Bailey (1902-1967) was a brilliant clarinetist who, although known for his smooth and quiet playing with John Kirby's sextet, occasionally really cut loose with some wild solos. Expertly trained by the classical teacher Franz Schoepp (who also taught Benny Goodman), Bailey worked with W.C Handy's band in 1917. Eccentric Rag was the first big hit written by J. Russel Robinson in 1912.
  •   --- MILLS BROTHERS - "Caravan" (single-sided vinyl test pressing recorded in 1942) by the Mills Brothers.

   Music reviewer, Paghat writes about this song and arrangement that can be seen here. >>> "Offensive to a forgiveable degree, the Mills Brothers perform this song in the garb of hillbillies as they vocally recreate Duke Ellington's classic instrumental Caravan (1942). It's doubtful the brothers had anything to do with the costuming, but had done their arrangement of the swing tune strictly in honor of Ellington, thus sophisticated rather than hick imagery would've been more apropos. To recreate a big band swing sound with just their mouths is damned clever, but they've also given us a very fine piece of classic harmony. Given the sophistication of Ellington's composition and the cosmopolitan wittiness of the Mills Brothers' vocal arrangement, dressing them up in a hick setting seems hardly to fit the music. To heighten the unfortunate stereotype there are three 'lazy darkies' lounging nearby, a guy and two gals. These lazy persons have complained that a dance band was supposed to show up for a dance, but isn't going to make it. Only when the Mills Brothers recreate the band vocally does everyone perk up."

Read review by Paghat & then watch "Caravan"

·            Paghat continues, "Slowy one and then the other two and then additional dancers from off screen all get up to dance to "Caravan." It pretty much turns into a 'dancie' instead of a soundie, and if you overlook the stereotyping costuming, this is pretty fine performing, including some breakdance moves from the guy who wins a trophy, though he has to stop eatin' dat watermelon to receive it. Director Josef Berne worked with many black entertainers and should've known better. But in the context of soundie content of the time, one of the most popular 'thread' of soundies content was fake hillbilly music by the likes of the Korn Kobblers and scores of others. So rather than thinking 'lets have some lazy rural darkies with watermelons' I'm sure the point was to have black entertainers horn in on the generally popular honky-hillbillie imagery in many a soundie. And without the weight of history of such imagery crushing down upon it, it would've been no worse (but also no more clever) than when white performers did such acts. The music at least is good, and the later Mills Brothers soundies to come would forgo storytelling in favor of recording the performance." (review by Paghat)

  •   --- DINAH WASHINGTON - "Cat On a Hot Tin Roof" and "The First Time" by Dinah Washington (1924-1963) -- both songs recorded in 1956 with Mercury Records (Matrix #70868) white label two-sided test pressing. Dinah was a blues, R&B, and jazz singer. She is a 1986 inductee of the Alabama Jazz Hall of Fame. Washington was well known for singing torch songs. Recordings by Dinah Washington were inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame, which is a special Grammy award established in 1973 to honor recordings that are at least twenty-five years old, and that have "qualitative or historical significance.
  •   --- KING CURTIS - "Games People Play" by King Curtis (real name Curtis Ousley, 1934-1971) -- one-sided 45 test pressing recorded in 1969 with Atlantic/Atco Records (Mono, Matrix #69-C-16320-1, #6664). In 1970, Curtis won the Best R&B Instrumental Performance Grammy for this song, "Games People Play."
       >>> A genuine Atlantic/Atco 45rpm record (#69-C-16320) with "Games People Play" by King Curtis.
    BACKGROUND: Saxophonist, songwriter and producer. Successful both as a solo artist (best known for his 1967 hit Memphis Soul Stew) as well as a session musician and producer. Curtis mainly played and composed rhythm and blues or soul but also some Rock and roll and great bop or soul jazz. He was inducted into the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame in 2000. Around midnight on August 13, 1971 Curtis was lugging an air-conditioning unit towards his brownstone apartment on West 86th Street in New York City when he noticed two junkies were using drugs on the steps to his home. When he asked them to leave, an argument started. The argument quickly became heated and turned into a fist-fight with one of the men, 26-year old Juan Montañez. Suddenly, Montañez pulled out a knife and stabbed Curtis in the chest. Curtis managed to wrestle the knife away and stab his assailant four times before collapsing. Montañez staggered away from the scene and Curtis was taken to Roosevelt Hospital, where he died from his wounds less than an hour later. Montañez was arrested at the same hospital Curtis had been taken to. When police officers investigating the murder learned that another man had been admitted to Roosevelt hospital with stab wounds around the same time as Curtis, they quickly realized that the two events were connected. Montañez was charged with Curtis' murder and subsequently sentenced to a term of imprisonment.
  •   --- SUE CHALONER - "Answer My Prayer" by Sue Chaloner (born 1953) -- one-sided 33 test pressing recorded in 1991 with Pulse-8 Records (UK). Sue is an English-Dutch pop singer, best known for the '70s duo Spooky and Sue. She is living in Holland these days and tours Europe constantly.
  •   --- REX STEWART - "Jug Blues" ("ST 2219-2", "M3-113850", "PART 5196" by Rex Stewart -- white label one-sided original shellac test pressing. Recorded at Studio Technisonor, Paris, France on December 9 & 10, 1947. Rex Stewart (1907-1967) liked to experiment with his cornet, creating different sounds. He popularized the half-valve technique and was quite adept at playing just his valve. Both are employed on "Jug Blues," backing the rough-and-ready vocalizing of bass player Wilson Myers. On the song: Rex Stewart (cor) Sandy Williams (tb) George Kennedy (as, cl) Vernon Story (ts) Don Gais (p) Ted Curry (d).
  •   --- BESSIE SMITH - "There'll Be a Hot Time In Town Tonight" (Matrix #21840) white label one-sided original 78 shellac test pressing, with hand-written information about the "Empress of the Blues," Bessie Smith (1894-1937). Recorded in 1927 by Columbia Records.
    BACKGROUND: Bessie Smith's magnificent voice, sense of the dramatic, clarity of diction (you never missed a word of what she sang) and incomparable time and phrasing set her apart from the competition and made her appeal as much to jazz lovers as to lovers of the blues.

Her voice was remarkable, filling the largest hall without amplification and reaching out to each listener in beautiful, earthy tones. Born into poverty in Chattanooga, TN, Bessie Smith began singing for money on street corners and eventually rose to become the largest-selling recording artist of her day. So mesmerizing was her vocal style - reinforced by her underrated acting and comedic skills - that near-riots frequently erupted when she appeared. Those outside the theaters clamored to get in; those inside refused to leave without hearing more of Smith. Guitarist Danny Barker as saying: "Bessie Smith was a fabulous deal to watch. She was a large, pretty woman and she dominated the stage. You didn't turn your head when she went on. You just watched Bessie. If you had any church background like people who came from the [U.S.] South as I did, you would recognize a similarity between what she was doing and what those preachers and evangelists from there did, and how they moved people. She could bring about mass hypnotism." With her earnings, Smith was able to purchase a custom-designed railroad car for herself and her troupe in 1925. This luxury allowed her to circumvent some of the dispiriting effects of the racism found in both northern and southern states as she traveled with her own tent show or with the Theater Owners' Booking Association (TOBA) shows, commanding a weekly salary that peaked at $2,000. Twice she was instrumental in helping save Columbia Records from bankruptcy.

Bessie Smith

  •   --- KID ORY - "The World's Jazz Crazy, Lawdy So Am I" and "Creole bo bo" (two-sided shellac test pressing recorded October 21, 1946 by Columbia #37276 and #37277). As a prime surviving trombonist from the dawn of recorded jazz, Edward "Kid" Ory served as the eye of a hurricane driving the resurgence of traditional New Orleans entertainment during the mid-'40s. His radio broadcasts and the excellent studio recordings he cut during the second half of the 1940s helped to repopularize old-fashioned jazz and paved the way for a full-blown Dixieland revival during the 1950s. The "Creole Bo Bo" ("Bo Bo" being a sort of dance) was one of his popular selections, along with "The World's Jazz Crazy," which sounded a lot like "Ballin' the Jack."
  •   --- CHARLIE PARKER - "Big Foot" Part I&II. recorded on December 11, 1948 at the Royal Roost. (two-sided shellac). This is a very nice, near mint 10" (78rpm). Miles Davis and Kinny Dorham are on trumpet, with pianist Al Haig, bassist Tommy Potter and drummer Max Roach.
    Arguably the greatest saxophonist of all time, Charlie "Bird" Parker was one of a handful of artists who permanently changed jazz. The altoist's phenomenal technique, ability to play perfectly coherent solos at blinding speeds, array of fresh ideas and phrases and his genius at improvising over chord changes have inspired and been emulated by a countless number of musicians from 1945 up to the present. Most of Bird's most famous solos were made in the studio either for Savoy, Dial or Verve. However, when his band was captured live at clubs, the results were even more stunning. Parker was able to take lengthy solos and his string of ideas never seemed to run out of creativity or excitement. From the Royal Roost with his regularly working quintet.
    ROYAL ROOST: 1580 Broadway (at 47th Street). Peak years: 1946 to mid-’50s. In 1942, a new sound began to be heard in New York City: snappy, staccato phrasing, harmonic leaps and rhythmic elasticity all taken at a breakneck tempo that favored 8th notes (and sometimes 16th notes) for maximum effect. By 1944, this sound that defined a doorway into the modern era of jazz had its heroes—Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie—and a name: bebop. Sept. 1948-March 1949—Bird’s quintet featured weekly at Royal Roost Club in NYC, dubbed the "Metropolitan Bopera House;" stellar sessions taped off radio broadcasts by Boris Rose, others during recording ban by American Federation of Musicians; broadcasts flavored by colorful deep-voiced musings of legendary jazz disc jockey "Symphony Sid" Torin.
  •   --- FLETCHER HENDERSON ORCHESTRA - "Tidal Wave" (single-sided vinyl test pressing recorded on September 12, 1934 in New York by Decca). The Fletcher Henderson Orchestra was the most popular African-American band of the 1920s. The smooth, carefully arranged sound of Henderson's orchestra was a huge influence on the Swing style of the next decade. The Orchestra played at the Club Alabam on West 44th Street in New York from 1922 to July of 1924 and then moved to the Roseland Ballroom when Armand J. Piron's Orchestra vacated the job and returned to New Orleans. In 1924 Henderson  hired Louis Armstrong to replace Joe Smith on trumpet. Armstrong's thirteen months in the band caused quite a stir among New York Jazz musicians who had never heard anything like him. The orchestra also featured Coleman Hawkins on tenor saxophone, Buster Bailey on clarinet and Don Redman on alto saxophone and also contributing arrangements. When Armstrong left the band to return to Chicago to join Erskine Tate's Vendome Orchestra a succession of fine cornet and trumpet players played in the band.
  •   --- BILL HARRIS - "Bill Harris and His Guitar" (two-sided vinyl advance/test pressing, recorded in 1956 by Mercury).  EmArcy # MG 36097 from Mercury. This EmArcy Solo Guitar from 1956 is considered to be the first album of solo jazz guitar ever released. The song titles are typewritten on the label...Selections are: Stompin' at the Savoy, Moonglow, Cherokee, Out of Nowhere, Ethel, Possessed, Perdido, I Can't Get Started, Dreaming, K.C. Shuffle, Ivanhoe, and Lover. 
    : Guitarist Bill Harris was one of the finest solo guitar players to take on classical guitar, jazz and blues. He was lead guitarist, composer/arranger and singer with The Clovers in the early 1950's. Bill Harris was a professor of music at Howard University. During the '70s, Harris operated Pigfoot, a Washington, D.C., restaurant, nightclub, and art gallery.
  •   --- JIM GODDARD of the Foreman Banks - "Heav'n Heav'n" and "Lucky Jim" (very rare two-sided shellac white label pressing of otherwise unreleased 1930 Brunswick masters) by Jim Goddard. Adapted by Harry Thacker Burleigh in 1921 as "Heav'n Heav'n (Gonna Shout All Over God's Heav'n)"
  •   --- JOE LIGGINS & HIS HONEYDRIPPERS  - Joe Liggins (1915 - 1987) with "Little Willie" and "Think of Me" (very rare two-sided Exclusive sample copy (EXC-1139, Master Series: 252, Hollywood, CA). Songs featured "Little" Willie Jackson on alto and baritone; James Jackson on tenor; Joe Liggins on piano; Frank Pasley on guitar; Eddie Davis on bass; Peppy Prince on drums.
    BACKGROUND: Joe was an American R&B, jazz, and blues pianist, who was the frontman in the 19402 and 1950s with the band, Joe Liggins and the Honeydrippers. His band was often the staple on the US Billboard R&B chart in those years, with their biggest hit logging a reported 2 million sales. 
  •   --- UNKNOWN 1930s ORCHESTRA playing W.C. Handy's "Big Stick Blues" (single-sided Metropolitan Recording Studios acetate which seems to be from a radio program on the life & compositions of W.C. Handy -- an announcer speaks at the beginning --- note that "Big Stick Blues" was never recorded prior to this recording and this seems to be a unique item).
  •   --- ALBERT "SCRATCH" PHILLIPS - "Mary Jo" (by the Four Blazes) and "Fancy Meeting You" (by Count Basie) -- two-sided 10" shellac KCOR radio pressing, hand written on the label and signed by Scratch. Albert "Scratch" Phillips was a legendary African American disc jockey in San Antonio, Texas. Hired by KCOR on May 25th, 1951, Scratch hosted a nightly two-hour R&B radio show on KCOR. The listeners were treated to Jackie Wilson, Ray Charles, Bo Diddley, James Brown and many other entertainers. In 1953 KCOR opened up a cafe. Scratch installed a broadcasting booth in the cafe, from which he originated his nightly program. He later hosted a KCOR TV (channel 41) show. Scratch died in December, 2004.
  •   --- LOUIS ARMSTRONG - "Big Butter and Egg Man" and "When it's Sleepytime Down South" (two-sided shellac test). "Big Butter and Egg Man" was a 1926 jazz song written by Percy Venable. Venable was a record producer at the Sunset Cafe and wrote the song for Louis Armstrong and singer May Alix. The song is often played by Dixieland bands, and is considered a jazz standard. According to pianist Earl Hines, Alix would often tease the young Armstrong during performances. Armstrong was known to be timid, and had a crush on the beautiful vocalist. At times, Armstrong would forget the lyrics and just stare at Alix, and band members would shout "Hold it, Louis! Hold it." Armstrong's utterly confident cornet solo on the 1926 recording is one of his most highly acclaimed performances. The song name was a 1920s slang term for a big spender, a traveling businessman in the habit of spending large amounts of money in nightclubs. The song is also known as "I Want a Big Butter and Egg Man" or "Big Butter and Egg Man from the West".
      >>> A genuine Decca 78rpm record with "When it's Sleeytime Down South" by Louis Armstrong and His Orchestra.
    -- In 1931, Armstrong first recorded "When It's Sleepytime Down South," the tune that became his theme song.
  •   --- LOUIS ARMSTRONG - "I'll Walk Alone" and "Kiss of Fire" -- two-sided shellac test pressing, with "Kiss of Fire" adapted from 'El Choclo' (Lester Allen–Robert Hill) Decca 28177, [Master 82703]. Recorded April 19, 1952, Denver, Colorado  -- I touch your lips and all at once the sparks go flying, Those devil lips that know so well the art of lying. And though I see the danger, still the flame grows higher, I know I must surrender to your kiss of fire. In anyone else's hands, the ancient tango Kiss Of Fire would have sounded ludicrous, but Satch gives it the same light-hearted treatment Fats Waller might have given it. Had he heard it, Waller would have nodded in approval of Louis' tag: 'Ah, boin (burn) me!'
    -- "I'll Walk Alone" is recorded the same date (April 19, 1952) in Denver, CO (Styne; Cahn) [master 82702] -- Decca 28177. Armstrong, Louis (Trumpet, Vocal), Phillips, Russ (Trombone), Bigard, Barney (Clarinet), Ruffell, Donald (Clarinet, Tenor Saxophone), Napoleon, Marty (Piano), Jones, Dale (Bass), Cole, Cozy (Drums).
  •   --- LOUIS ARMSTRONG - "I Dream of Jeanie" and "Indian Love Call" (two-sided shellac test). "I Dream of Jeanie" was written by Stephen Foster, originally titled "I Dream of Jenny with the Light Brown Hair." Jenny was the nickname of Stephen Foster's wife to whom - with whom he had an unhappy on-again marriage. And he wrote this when they were estranged, or - it's a little bit unclear - or possibly, just gotten back together again. I dream of Jeanie with the light brown hair. Borne like a vapor on the summer air. I see her tripping where the bright streams play, happy as the daisies that dance on her way. Many were the wild notes her merry voice would pour. Many were the blithe birds that warbled them o'er.
        >>> A genuine Decca 78rpm record with "Indian Love Call" and "Jeanine" by Louis Armstrong and His Orchestra.
     -- "Indian Love Call"
    was recorded by Louis Armstrong and Gordon Jenkins & his Orchestra. Written by Rudolf Friml, Herbert Stothart, Otto Harbach and Oscar Hammerstein II. Recorded on November 28, 1951 in Los Angeles: Louis Armstrong, trumpet, vocal; Chris Griffin, George Thow, Bruce Hudson, trumpet; Eddie Miller, Dent Eckels, tenor saxophone; Charles LaVere, piano; Allan Reuss, guitar; Phil Stephens, bass; Nick Fatool, drums; Unknown strings, Gordon Jenkins (arranger, conductor). Originally released on Decca 28076. "Indian Love Call" wasn't the type of song Louis was going to start performing live with the All Stars. Also, it doesn't appear to have made any waves on the charts, either. But on June 8, 1952, over six months after the studio recording, Louis performed it on "The U. S. Royal Showcase," an NBC television show with a studio band conducted for the occasion by Gordon Jenkins. This performance was never issued commercially but it is a fantastic little rarity.
  •   --- LOUIS ARMSTRONG - "I Get Ideas" and "It's All in the Game" (two-sided shellac test). The song, "I Get Ideas" was originally a tango-cancion (music with lyrics) called "Adios, Muchachos", composed by Julio Cesar Sanders (often credited in the U.S. as "Lenny Sanders"). The recording by Louis Armstrong was recorded on July 24, 1951 and released by Decca Records as catalog number 27720. It first reached the Billboard magazine charts on August 24, 1951 and lasted 16 weeks on the chart, peaking at #13. It was the flip side to "A Kiss to Build A Dream On."
    -- "It's All in the Game" was a jazz arrangement was recorded by Louis Armstrong (vocals) and arranger Gordon Jenkins, with "some of Armstrong's most honey-tinged singing." Carl Sigman composed the lyrics in 1951 to a wordless 1911 composition entitled "Melody in A Minor," written by Charles Dawes, later VP of the United States under Calvin Coolidge. It is the only #1 pop single (a 1958 #1 hit for Tommy Edwards) to have been co-written by a U.S. Vice President.

  --- DEEP RIVER BOYS - "What Did He Say?" (The Mumbles Song). This is a rare original 10"/78 RPM test pressing of the famous "Mumbles Song" by the Deep River Boys on RCA Records -- serial # D7-VA-2057-1A. This recording was found in a storage facility not far from the original recording studio in Camden, NJ.
BACKGROUND: The Deep River Boys had their genesis on the campus of Hampton Institute in Virginia in the mid thirties. They found their first success in winning radio's "Amateur Hour" competition. This notoriety led to opportunities to appear on stage and in radio. During the Second World War the group did extensive touring for the USO and provided entertainment for American troops overseas. The members for most of the life of the group were Harry Douglas, Jimmy Lundy, Ed Ware, and Vernon Gardner.
In 1948 they released two songs for RCA -- "I'm Sorry I Didn't Say I'm Sorry" and “What Did He Say,” written by Cy Coben. Could this have been the first rap song ever recorded?


  •   --- PAUL ROBESON - "De 'Old Ark's A-Movering" and " Ezekiel Saw de Wheel" were recorded as Echantillon Invendable "Sample Unmarketable" Spirituals by Rapport (Report) de Fusins in Paris, France on March 3, 1927 (one-sided, 10" 78rpm shellac test pressing) --K7825, MX #38420, XREF #MW6068.
    BACKGROUND: In 1925 the baritone Paul Robeson became the first major singer to perform Lawrence Benjamin Brown's spiritual arrangement in concert. Robeson also was the first solo singer to offer an entire concert of spirituals
  •   --- INTERNATIONAL SINGERS with CLIFFORD KEMP, CONDUCTOR - "Ave Maria" (Villa-Lobos) was recorded by the International Singers (with Clifford Kemp, conductor) at Carnegie Hall in New York on April 7, 1949 (one-sided, 10" 78rpm shellac test pressing -- #H1, Carnegie Hall Recording Co.).
    BACKGROUND: THE INTERNATIONAL SINGERS, with Clifford Kemp as their conductor appeared at Carnegie Hall in concert on April 7, 1949. Under the energetic and sensitive direction of Mr. Kemp, the International Singers are rapidly becoming known as the group likely to bring us realistic interpretations of folk songs from many countries. Consisting of forty voices with as many nationalities represented, the singers were exceptionally persuasive in their rendition of songs like "Ave Maria" and many others. Clifford Kemp once stated, "Music can iron out misunderstandings better than logic."
  •   --- DUKE ELLINGTON - "Blue Skies" and "Squeeze Me But Don't Tease Me" (two-sided shellac). This is a very nice, near mint 10" (78rpm) Mid-1940s era air check of Duke Ellington. Can't tell much more about it, except that the record came from the collection of an advanced Ellington collector.
    Blue Skies” was covered by well over 100 artists, including Duke Ellington. The song was born of more desperation than inspiration. It was introduced in 1926 by well-known vaudeville star Belle Baker in the Broadway musical Betsy, but that doesn’t begin to describe the saga of how an Irving Berlin song ended up in a Richard Rodgers and Lorenz Hart musical. The young songwriting team of Rodgers and Hart had written the score for Betsy in the new fashion sweeping Broadway musicals, that of integrating songs into the characters and dramatic context of the story rather than stringing together a series of song and dance numbers in the style of a revue, often with little connection to the plotline. Betsy, produced by Florenz Ziegfeld, was scheduled to open on Broadway in December of 1926 after its Boston tryout, where it was moderately well received but was far from being a hit. Berlin’s first child had been born in November of 1926, and the song he had started but not finished was to be gift to his new daughter. All he had was the first eight bars of the refrain, but with the help of Baker and her husband, Maurice Abrahams, working through the night he finished the song, lyrics and all, and it became “Blue Skies.” Herbert Baker recalls, “It’s now about seven in the morning and the show is due to open that night. My mother gets on the phone and calls Florenz Ziegfeld. She wakes him up and she tells him that Irving Berlin has been up all night working on a song for her, and it’s finished, and it’s great, and she wants to sing it tonight, and if she can’t sing it tonight she doesn’t want to open in the show. When Baker sang “Blue Skies” she stopped the show and had to sing twenty-four encores. On the twenty-third time, overwhelmed by the response, she forgot the lyrics, and Berlin, who was in the audience, stood up and gave her the words. They finished the next chorus singing together.
  •   --- DUKE ELLINGTON - "Just Good Fun" was recorded by Duke Ellington (piano solo) at an ARC-Brunswick recording session in New York on March 8, 1939 (one-sided, 10" 78rpm shellac test pressing) -- mx #MW-990-1, issued on LP only; FDC-1003.
  •   --- JIMMY RUSHING with COUNT BASIE & HIS ORCHESTRA  - "The Blues I Like to Hear" (one-sided shellac test). This song was recorded in New York City with Jimmy Rushing on vocals -- November 16, 1938 (released on Decca 2284, Matrix #64748. Composed by Jimmy Rushing and arranged by Buster Smith. Count Basie and his Orchestra : Ed Lewis, Harry Edison, Buck Clayton, tp; Dicky Wells, Dan Minor, BennyMorton, tb; Earl Warren, as; Lester Young,Herschel Evans, ts; Jack Washington, bs, as; Count Basie, p; Freddie Green, g; Walter Page, b; Jo Jones, drums.
       BACKGROUND: Born James Andrew Rushing on August 26, 1903, in Oklahoma City, OK; died June 8, 1972, in New York, NY. Jazz vocalist. Pianist. Played in Southern California with Jelly Roll Morton, Harvey Brooks, and Paul Howard, 1920s; member of Walter Page Blue Devils band, 1927-29; joined Bennie Moten's orchestra, 1929-35; member of Count Basie Orchestra, 1935-50; toured with his own septet, 1950-52; as a solo act, 1952-72; Europe with Humphrey Littleton, Buck Clayton, Benny Goodman, 1961; Japan and Australia with Eddie Condon, 1964; appeared in film The Learning Tree, 1969; appeared at the Half Note in New York City playing with Al Cohn and Zoot Sims, early 1970s. Jimmy Rushing, also known as "Mr. Five by Five," (short height and wide girth) possessed ajoyous, booming voice that could be clearly heard over the swinging jazz orchestras of the big band era and beyond. He began his career as a piano player in the 1920s, but soon found his voice. He made his name with the Count Basie Orchestra in the 1940s, and enjoyed an active career singing solo and with jazz and big-band greats such as Humphrey Lyttleton, Buck Clayton, Benny Goodman, Eddie Condon, Al Cohn, and Zoot Sims, among others. He toured the United States and abroad, and his voice can be heard on countless recordings, including the most recent compilations The Essential Jimmy Rushing (1978), Mister Five by Five (1980), and The Classic Count (1982).
  •   --- COUNT BASIE and ORCHESTRA - "I'm Going to Move Way Out On the Outskirts of Town" was recorded for Columbia Records in Chicago on April 3, 1942 (one-sided, 10" 78rpm shellac test -- #C-4226-1, Columbia Records). Count Basie is on the piano and Jimmie Rushing is on vocals.
  •   --- COUNT BASIE and ORCHESTRA - "Farewell Blues" was recorded for Columbia Records 1942, released in May 1944 (one-sided, 10" 78rpm shellac test -- #36712 HCO-7877-1, Columbia Records). is a 1922 jazz standard written by Paul Mares, Leon Roppolo and Elmer Scoebel. The song was originally recorded on August 29, 1922 in Richmond, Indiana. Count Basie recorded this smooth blues instrumental in 1942.
  •   --- KITTY WHITE - "Cashmere Sweater" and "The River, The Moonlight and You" were recorded in NYC with an unidentified orchestra (Hal Mooney, conductor) on November 9, 1956 (Whitehall Music, Record #70817two-sided, 10" 78rpm shellac test -- Master #12452 & #12453).
  •   --- SARAH VAUGHN - "Easy Come Easy Go Lover" was recorded in NYC with the Don Costa Orchestra on March 29, 1954 (Mercury Records, Midway Music, #70299, one-sided, 10" 78rpm shellac test.
  •   --- BILL DAVIS - "Lullaby of Birdland" was recorded by the Bill Davis Trio on January 8th, 1953 (Columbia Records, Okeh label, #6946, one-sided, 10" 78rpm shellac test, Matrix CO486771. Songf was written by George Shearing. Birdland was a famous jazz club in New York City located at 1678 Broadway at 44th Street. It had previously been the Clique Club where pianist George Shearing, composer of “Lullaby of Birdland,” first played in 1949 with clarinetist Buddy De Franco. Later that year owner Morris Levy renamed the club Birdland in honor of Charlie "Bird” Parker.
    In his autobiography, Lullaby of Birdland: The Autobiography of George Shearing, Shearing says that there was nothing special about the small club which seated a maximum of 175 when packed. But it became famous because of the live broadcasts which originated there. In 1952 Levy decided to have station WJZ in New York broadcast a disc jockey program from there, and he asked Shearing to record a theme song for the show. But Shearing didn’t like the song that Levy gave him, so he offered to write one especially for the show. Levy finally agreed with the stipulation that he be given publishing rights while Shearing retain composer rights. For weeks Shearing tried to come up with something but to no avail. Suddenly one night in the middle of dinner he jumped up, went to the piano and wrote the whole thing in about ten minutes. The pianist explains, “Actually quite a lot of my compositions have come this way--very slow going for a week or so, and the finished piece comes together very rapidly, but as I say to those who criticize this method of working, it’s not that I dash something off in ten minutes, it’s ten minutes plus umpteen years in the business.” Shearing recorded his instrumental for the radio show and ultimately adopted it as the theme song for his quintet. Somewhat later George David Weiss added lyrics to the tune, and Sarah Vaughan recorded it in December, 1954, for Mercury with trumpeter Clifford Brown. It was one of her biggest hits and became a standard in her repertoire. In 1956 a Parisian vocal group called the Blue Stars took the song to the charts where it rose to #16. In 1962 Bill Haley and His Comets recorded a version of the tune which they called, “Lullaby of Birdland Twist.”
    -- NOTE: On
    Feb 14, 2011. George Shearing, the British piano virtuoso who overcame blindness to become a worldwide jazz star, and whose composition, "Lullaby of Birdland" became an enduring jazz standard, died in Manhattan. He was 91.
  •   --- LARRY DARNELL - "I'll Be Sittin' I'll Be Rockin'" and "Crazy She calls Me" were recorded with orchestra (Leroy Kirkland, conductor) in 1953 (Columbia Records, Okeh label  #6954 two-sided, 10" 78rpm shellac test -- Master #CO48077 & #CO48060). Composers for I'll Be Sittin': S. Wyche & L Kirkland. Composers for Crazy She Calls Me: C. Sigman & B. Russell.
    D: This great R & B performer started out in 1950 with two well received recordings on the Regal label. Number 3236 - "I'll Get Along Somehow" and soon after #3240 - "For you My Love". "I'll Get Along" is an immediate hit on the West coast. In January of 1953 singer Varetta Dillard joins the tour with Darnell and the two Harris blues men. In April "I'll Be Sittin' and I'll Be Rockin'" and "Crazy She Calls Me" is released on Okeh #6954. The famous R & B popularity poll held by the Pittsburgh Courier places Larry Darnell third among all male performers attesting to his lasting appeal despite slumping record sales. Some of the shows on tour offer an all out "Battle Of The Blues" between Wynonie Harris and Larry Darnell.
  •   --- FRANK MURPHY - "Our Song and "What Can I Do?" were recorded with Norman Leyden in January 1953 (Columbia Records, Okeh label  #6954 two-sided, 10" 78rpm shellac test -- Master #CO48077 & #CO48060). Composers for I'll Be Sittin': S. Wyche & L Kirkland.
  •   --- BILL DAVIS - ""Nina Never Knew" and "Rhapsody in Blue" were recorded in 1953 (Columbia Records, Okeh label  #6965 two-sided, 10" 78rpm shellac test.
  •   --- JACKIE ROY & the COLLEGIANS - "The Leaf" and "You Made a Fool of Me" were recorded with the Ray Ellis Orchestra in March, 1953 (Columbia Records, Okeh label  #6954 two-sided, 10" 78rpm shellac test.
  •   --- SONNY BOY WILLIAMSON - "Sonny Boy's Cold Chills" was recorded in Chicago on August 6, 1946 (RCA Victor, Record #20-2184, one-sided, 10" 78rpm shellac test.  Willis Lacy on guitar, Ransom Knowling on string bass, and Blind John Davis on piano. Aleck "Rice" Miller (December 5, 1899? – May 25, 1965) was an African American blues harmonica player, singer and songwriter. He was also known as Sonny Boy Williamson II, Sonny Boy Williams, Willie Williamson, Willie Miller, Little Boy Blue, The Goat and Footsie.
  •   --- THE DIXIE STARS - "Sweet Mandy" and "Henry Jones" were recorded on May 10, 1927 by Al Bernard and Russel Robinson (Brunswick Records, #E-23069 & #E-23064, two-sided, 10" 78rpm shellac test. Al Bernard was born in New Orleans, he became a blackface singer in minstrel shows before starting his recording career around 1916. He was one of the first white singers to record blues songs. W.C. Handy credited Bernard with helping his own career by recording a number of his songs.
  •   --- LOUIS ARMSTRONG & HIS HOT FIVE - "You Made Me Love You" and "Irish Black Bottom" were recorded on November 27, 1926 (two-sided, 10" 78rpm shellac test -- #09981A & #09980A). The song, "Irish Black Bottom" was all the craze in Ireland.
  •   --- BOB MARLEY & THE WAILERS - "Babylon By Buss" and "It's All in the Game" (two-sided 12" 2LP test -- ISLD-11). Babylon By Bus is a live album released by Bob Marley & The Wailers in 1978. The album was recorded mostly at the Pavillion de Paris in June 1978, during the Kaya Tour. Like the 1973 album Catch A Fire, the first release had something of a novelty cover. The windows of the bus on the front cover were cut out, revealing part of the inner sleeve. The listener had a choice of four different scenes to view through the windows.
      --- JIMMY LUNCEFORD & HIS ORCHESTRA ("THE JIMMIES")  - "I Need a Lift" (extremely rare 12" one-sided V-Disc 78rpm shellac test -- VP-1590, No. 568A). This song featured Kirtland Bradford on alto sax, with vocals by "The Jimmies" band.
    V-Disc ("V" for Victory) was a morale-boosting initiative involving the production of several series of recordings during the World War II era by special arrangement between the United States government and various private U.S. record companies. The records were produced for the use of United States military personnel overseas. Many popular singers, big bands and orchestras of the era recorded special V-Disc records. These 12-inch, vinyl 78 rpm gramophone recordings were created for the army between October 1943 and May 1949. Navy discs were released between July 1944 and September 1945. Twelve inch discs were used because, when 136 grooves per inch were used, they could hold up to six and a half minutes of music. The V-Disc project actually began in June 1941, six months before the United States' involvement in World War II, when Captain Howard Bronson was assigned to the Army's Recreation and Welfare Section as a musical advisor. Bronson suggested the troops might appreciate a series of records featuring military band music, inspirational records that could motivate soldiers and improve morale. By 1942, the Armed Forces Radio Service (AFRS) sent 16-inch, 33 rpm vinyl transcription discs to the troops from eight sources: special recording sessions, concerts, recitals, radio broadcasts, film sound tracks and commercial records.


There are two types of 78 pressing: Stock Shellac and Laminated:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
  --- Stock shellac pressings are those produced from a shellac and filler mix (the fillers were put in to both increase the resistance to wear and to keep the price down - shellac was and is expensive!). Because of the quantity of filler used, stock shellac surfaces tend to be noisy and prone to grittiness, e.g. Victor, Brunswick, Vocalion, Decca etc. Most records pressed in the US, Europe and Britain were stock shellac.
  --- Laminated pressings used a low quality filler core but then had a high quality playing surface bonded to it. This playing surface was shellac rich which meant that the surface noise was reduced massively. The main users of Laminated Pressings in the US were Columbia (1923-33 and again in the 1940s) and OKeh (1926-33 and again later in the 1940s). In Britain Columbia (1923-31)and Parlophone (1928-31) used laminated pressings until the merger with HMV into EMI in 1931. Thereafter all EMI records were produced on stock shellac. In continental Europe many Columbia and HMV (1928-1940s) pressings were also laminated. The most interesting exception was Australia, where laminated pressings were the rule rather than the exception from 1923 (Columbia) and 1931 (HMV) right through to the end of 78s. Because of limited pressing facilities, even labels such as Decca appeared as laminated pressings. The superior surfaces of the Australian laminated pressings have thus long been prized by collectors.

  5. 1829 newspaper from Bermuda - The Royal Gazette - Bermuda Commercial and General Advertiser and Recorder - Hamilton, Bermuda: Donald McPhee Lee (first editor) - No. 37 - Vol. 2, dated Tuesday, September 15, 1829 - this paper was started in 1828 and is still in production at the present. This genuine historical 4 page newspaper has typical age toning, foxing and edge wear and is printed on cotton and rag cloth. An intriguing read as it gives first hand news and reflections of life at that time in Bermuda and around the world, such as recently enacted laws, news (on politics, wars and deaths), poetry and advertising were published in the daily paper, with descriptive ads for runaway slaves and the selling of slaves commonplace.
     In this issue is an interesting article about the Abolition of Slavery, "At a meeting held at the Freemason's Tavern, London, on the 14th July last, for the purpose of considering the means of protecting from Slavery the future children born of Negroes in the British Colonies -- Mr. Olway Cave, in the chair. -- A variety of resolutions were proposed and assented to, to the effect that Parliament should be petitioned for the liberation of slaves born after a certain period in the British Colonies: the Rev. Mr. Isaacson of Demerara, a clergyman of the Church of England, in proposing the amendment to the resolution, "which" he said, "if carried into effect, would shew (sic) whether the system of free labour was practicable, and likely to benefit the slaves themselves;" added that "the whole population of Montserrat and Tortola (6000 in number), might be purchased for 600,000 Pounds; and it had been proposed to the Duke of Devonshire to purchase these islands, in order to try a system of free labour, which, if it succeeded, might then be extended to other Colonies..."

  6. Extremely scarce, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, the African (1837 edition). Captured far from the African coast when he was a boy of 11, Olaudah Equiano (1745 - 1797) was sold into slavery, later acquired his freedom. In 1789 Olaudah wrote his widely-read autobiography. The youngest son of a village leader, Equiano was born among the Ibo people in the kingdom of Benin, along the Niger River. He was "the greatest favorite with [his] mother." His family expected to follow in his father's footsteps and become a chief, an elder, a judge. Slavery was an integral part of the Ibo culture, as it was with many other African peoples. His family owned slaves, but there was also a continual threat of being abducted, of becoming someone else's slave. This is what happened, one day, while Equiano and his sister were at home alone. Two men and a woman captured the children. Several days later Equiano and his sister were separated. Equiano continued to travel farther and farther from home, day after day, month after month, exchanging masters along the way. Equiano's early experiences as a slave were not all disagreeable; some families treated Equiano almost as a part of the family. The kind treatment, however, was about to end.

Olaudah Equiano


    About six or seven months after being abducted, Equiano was brought to the coast, where he first encountered a slave ship and white men. As it was for all slaves, the Middle Passage for Equiano was a long, arduous nightmare. In his autobiography he describes the inconceivable conditions of the slaves' hold: the "shrieks of the women," the "groans of the dying," the floggings, the wish to commit suicide, how those who somehow managed to drown themselves were envied. The ship finally arrived at Barbados, where buyers purchased most of the slaves. There was no buyer, however, for the young Equiano. Less than two weeks after his arrival, he was shipped off to the English colony of Virginia, where he was purchased and put to work. Less than a month later, he had a new master -- Michael Henry Pascal, a lieutenant in the Royal Navy. Under this master, who owned Equiano for the next seven years, Equiano would move to England, educate himself, and travel the world on ships under Pascal's command. In 1766, Equiano bought his freedom. He found work in the trade business in the West Indies, then in London. In 1773, he took part in an expedition to try to discover the Northwest Passage, a route through the arctic to the Pacific Ocean. Back in England, Equiano became an active abolitionist. He lectured against the cruelty of British slave owners. He spoke out against the English slave trade. He worked to resettle freed slaves. In 1787 Equiano helped his friend, Offohab Cugoano, to published an account of his experiences, Narrative of the Enslavement of a Native of America. Copies of his book were sent to George III and other leading politicians. He failed to persuade the king to change his opinions and like other members of the royal family remained against abolition of the slave trade. By 1789, the year he published his autobiography, Olaudah Equiano was a well-known abolitionist. In 1792 Equiano married Susan Cullen of Ely. The couple had two children, Anna Maria and Johanna. However, Anna Maria died when she was only four years old. Olaudah Equiano was appointed to the expedition to settle former black slaves in Sierra Leone, on the west coast of Africa. However, he died on 31st March, 1797 before he could complete the task.

Wilberforce signature

 7. Two William Wilberforce signatures (one example seen to the left). Because of this man, slavery ended in England and the abolitionist movement in America was influenced. As a constituency Member of Parliament, he had a lifelong involvement in the campaign to abolish slavery.

-- Handwritten letter by William Wilberforce (dated October 4th, 1808, East Bourne) to a Mr. Ch Idle, Esq., "My friend Mr. John Thornton and I were intending to do ourselves the pleasure of calling on you today, but we found on inquiry that you and Mrs. Idle were both absent. Our object was to confer with you concerning the setting up of a School (whether a Sunday or every day school may be matter of future consideration) in this neighborhood and putting it under the care of some truly pious teacher, ?, besides that general knowledge of your character which would have prompted us to apply to you for your concurrence in any such project...". NOTE: Mr. John Thornton was a wealthy merchant banker who had financially assisted ex-slaver, John Newton and many others.

-- "The Life of William Wilberforce", scarce First Edition book written by Casper Morris, 1857.

-- A Practical View Of The Prevailing Religious System Of Professed Christians, In The Higher And Middle Classes, Contrasted With Real Christianity. Book by William Wilberforce. Boston: Printed by Manning & Loring, For Ebenezer Larkin. 1799. Second American Edition. Publisher’s full calf leather over boards, red morocco spine label titled in gilt. 300 pages. Volume measures 7” x 4 ½”. William Wilberforce was an English philanthropist and anti-slavery crusader, who was instrumental in winning the abolition of the British slave trade in 1807. He was also an M. P. for the county of York and a central figure in the Clapham sect of Evangelicals. His object here is to demonstrate how Christianity, as practiced by the English middle and upper classes, differs from what he considered "true Christianity". This book put him at the forefront of the evangelical movement.
-- A Practical View of the Prevailing Religious System by William Wilberforce, 1824. 6" x 4" x 1", in fair - poor condition -- yellowing/water damage/spotting; binding is solid. Slight old book smell.
-- "A Practical View Of The Prevailing Religious System Of Professed Christians, In The Higher And Middle Classes, Contrasted With Real Christianity", by William Wilberforce (2 copies). Measuring about 3-1/2" x 5-3/4", and 375 pages long, this small hardback book is It is published in New York by the American Tract Society, and is undated, the only clue being that it is "from a late London edition." If I had to guess, I'd say somewhere near the mid-1800s. The only illustration is a steel engraved frontispiece of the author. It is bound in boards covered with peacock paper, and a green leather spine, but I believe this is a re-binding. The boards do not feel as thick and substantial as I would have expected them to be.

-- The Life of William Wilberforce (1872 edition) by his son, Samuel Lord Bishop of Winchester, published by John Murray, London. 452 pages, with engraved frontispiece, marbled page edges and endpapers, bound in blue calf with gilt pattern and lettering on the cover and spine. The writing on the front cover reads 'The Gift of the Haberdasher's Company'. This book tells the life story of William Wilberforce and the struggle to abolish the slave trade. Overall, in good condition - the binding is tight and all the pages are fine. However, the cover has been covered with a clear plastic film. Some wear to the leather can be seen underneath, along the edges of the cover and spine, with some discoloration to the back cover. Inside, a small clipping has been stuck onto the back of the flyleaf and opposite, there is an inscription from Newport Grammar School, dated 1894. Otherwise, apart from some slight yellowing to the pages, the text is in excellent condition.

-- The obituary of William Wilberforce in an intriguing volume of Gentleman's Magazine (July to December, 1833). This is the concluding volume of the original series Volume 103. Some of the items in this volume article running over the months British Empire in India, Saint James Chapel Croydon (with plate) much on Battles in Portugal between brothers of the Royal Family, Charing Palace (Kent), suppression of the slave trade in India, the obituary of ardent abolitionist and tireless anti-slavery advocate, William Wilberforce, and the address to the House of Representatives by President Jackson.  580 pages with 8 engraved plates, bound in half calf, chip to foot of spine, bound tight.
BACKGROUND: Gentleman's Magazine was founded in 1731, ceased publication in 1907, founder Edwin Cave who assumed the pen name of Sylvanus Urban.  The first general interest magazine to be published and the first to use the term magazine for a periodical journal, published monthly. Amongst its early contributors was Samuel Johnson who wrote parliamentary reports under the title "Debates of the Senate of Magna Lilliputia" during times when parliamentary reporting was banned. Each month every conceivable subject was covered plus regular features; parliamentary reports, foreign and domestic news, monthly historical chronicle (a monthly diary of current events), obituaries, marriages, appointments, bills of mortality (all excellent references for the genealogist with many names), reports and reviews of law cases, executions, new publications.  Of particular interest was the monthly section titled London Gazette which was important extracts from the official government newspaper often consisting of military and naval dispatches from commanders in the field.  Early copies were bound as 12 months, later as the magazine grew in size they were bound as 6 monthly sections.  Most months had a variety of engraved plates bound in. History as it happened written by people who were there, a fascinating read or a valuable reference work for the historian.

-- October 1, 1790 Literary Magazine & British Review which is 240 pages long. 8" x 5". Some of the subjects are the stock prices, poetry, Abolition of the Slave Trade, Life of G. Buchanan, General Principals of Political Economy and much, much more. William Wilberforce's famous abolition speech, delivered in the House of Commons on Tuesday, May 12, 1789 is the backdrop to the article about the abolition of the slave trade. In the article on the Abolition of the Slave Trade, the writer states, "At a time when Parliament are agitating the question of the slave trade, it is natural, as well as proper, to enquire into its nature and effect. The project for its destruction reflects an honour on the English, and affords a fresh proof to the world of humanity which has been deemed their characteristic. That a scheme like this should have met with impediments, might have been readily expected, as it concerns a commerce-sanctioned by long usage and supported by strong and powerful interest. I think, however, I can foretell, without prophetic inspiration, that opposition will prove fruitless, and will serve to only complete the triumph..."

-- Rare book entitled "An Abstract of the Evidence Delivered Before a Select Committee of the House of Commons in the Years 1790 and 1791, on the Part of the Petitioners for the Abolition of the Slave Trade".  The title on the front cover reads: "Evidence on the Slave Trade".  This book was published by the American Reform Tract and Book Society (1855) and has 117 pages. The book is about the evils of slavery and of the slave trade.  There are a list of witnesses who give accounts of the capture of people in Africa and the ensuing enslavement.  The book makes a case against slavery.  It is truly a collector's item.

-- Rare engraving of William Pitt published by the London Printing and Publishing Company (1840). Pitt was quite simply one of the most extraordinary politicians in history. For anyone to become Prime Minister at the age of 24 is amazing in itself, but to then go on to become one of the most dominant and long serving of British history puts him in a class of his own. Most disappointing was that his enfeebled physical and political state in his final years meant that he did not ram home his earlier pioneering efforts to abolish the slave trade, something which was secured only the year after his death. Pitt’s great friend William Wilberforce, led the campaign to abolish the slave trade (1833) and then to abolish slavery (1834) in the British Empire as well.

-- Rare edition of book (1787) written by ex-slave trader, John Newton (Rector of St. Mary, Woolnoth, London) -- Letters and Sermons With a Review of Ecclesiastical History and Hymns. This is Volume III of six volumes. Gives an interior view of Newton's thoughts and ideals on various spiritual topics. This collection also has several volumes of the 1824 edition of the series.

-- John Newton's book (very rare 1795 edition, First Edition was 1764) "An Authentic Narrative of some remarkable and interesting particulars in the Life of John Newton." Communicated in a Series of Letters to the Rev. Mr. Haweis, Rector of Aldwinckle, Northamptonshire by Newton, John (1725-1807). Printed in Philadelphia by William Young. The book contains fourteen letters, which covers many topics -- "Voyage to Madeira, Entry on Board a Guineaman, Voyage to Africa,  Voyage from Cape Lopez to England, Danger in the Voyage from Cape Lopez, Voyage to Antigua, Last Voyage to Africa, etc.. Newton was a minister in the Church of England and is best remembered as having written the hymn Amazing Grace. 103 pp.; old leather binding in good+ condition. Contents with foxing, yellowing but still very readable; 2 worm holes at top page edge, not affecting text.

-- Somewhat rare complete set of "The Works of John Newton: The Late Rector of St. Mary Woolnoth and St. Mary Woolchurch Haw, London, With Memoirs of the Author and General Remarks on His Life, Connections, and Character." By the Rev. Richard Cecil, M.A. (Third Edition in Six Volumes). London, MCDCCCXXIV (1824). In the sixth volume there is a very rare 25-page section entitled, "Thoughts Upon the African Slave Trade." Condition:  The body and blocks of all the volumes are holding fine.  There is foxing throughout due to age. Rubbing to spine, and splitting of outer cloth and around spine, chipping, etc. Most of the pages are white and crisp, simply hurting a bit cosmetically.  All binding holding fine. 

-- Scarce 1855 edition of "The Life of John Newton" Written for Young Children, no author, published by Carlton & Phillips for the Sunday School Union, NY. 92 pages, with 4 pages of advertisements for publications by the Sunday School Union of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Corners worn, wear to covers, piece torn out of flyleaf. Slight give to binding. Overall in good shape.
: I. A dream and the dreamer II. The ship of war III. Fresh troubles IV. Deliverance V. Dangers and preservations VI. Conviction VII. Happier prospects of life VIII. The sea-captain IX. Another change in life X. The sailor becomes a minister. 
Hymns and Poems
: a. The kite   b. A thought on the seashore   c. Written at Cowslip   d. A friend   e. The two debtors   f. The Bible   g. Trust in Christ   h. Saturday Evening

-- Extremely hard-to-find 1814 edition of "Letters To A Wife" by John Newton.  Includes letters sent to his wife from 1750 through 1785.  Many of these letters were sent from Africa.  John Newton was a hymn writer who composed the lyrics of "Amazing Grace."  Published by Whitehall in Philadelphia.  There is an appendix in the book about his wife's illness.  Bound into the back of the book in a different type face is a separate thirty-one page publication entitled "A Monument To The Praise of the Lord's Goodness, And to the Memory of Dear Eliza Cunningham.

-- The Minor Poems of the Inner Temple, by William Cowper. Published, 1818 in London for John Sharpe -- 7" x 4", 108 pages. This book includes one of his more famous poems, "The Negro's Complaint", along with an engraved image. This fine volume also includes, "Sonnet to William Wilberforce, Esq.", "To the Rev. Mr. Newton", and "Pity For Poor Africans." Nice gilt tooled full calf leather bound copy with many engraved plates. William Cowper (pronounced Cooper) (November 26, 1731 – April 25, 1800)  was an English poet and hymnodist. One of the most popular poets of his time, Cowper changed the direction of 18th century nature poetry by writing of everyday life and scenes of the English countryside. He suffered from periods of severe depression, and although he found refuge in a fervent evangelical Christianity, the source of his much-loved hymns, he often experienced doubt and fears that he was doomed to eternal damnation. However, his religious motivations and association with John Newton (who wrote the hymn "Amazing Grace") led to much of the poetry for which he is best remembered in the popular mind.

-- Rare 1835 engraving of abolitionists William Wilberforce and Thomas Clarkson (8.5 x 5.5) -- together in one etching, just one year after the Slave Trade had been officially abolished in England.

-- Very scarce wall plaque measuring 5 ¾ " X 8 ¾ ". The front reads:- William Wilberforce 1759 – 1833 M P For Kingston Upon Hull and Yorkshire, Emancipator. Abolition of Slavery Act 1833. The back of the plaque has the Eastgate Pottery Withernsea stamp. Made in England. We contacted Eastgate Potteries in Withernsea, UK for more information. The Director, John D. Worsdale responded with this note, "This was one of a limited number of plaques manufactured in the 1970's, as a special commission for William Wilberforce House. There were only 50 plaques made. I have never seen one for sale, therefore I cannot give you an estimate on value...It is extremely rare."

-- Thomas Clarkson. A Portraiture of Quakerism. Taken From a View of the Education and Discipline, Social Manners, Civil and Political Economy, Religious Principles, and Character of the Society of Friends. First Edition. New York: Samuel Stansbury, 1806. 3 volumes, 12 mo, 363, 382, and 372 pages. Edge worn, leather covers, foxed and browned paper, owner names handwritten in volume I (Ann Allen, Francis R. Taylor), a decorative gilt stamp of Ann H. Allen’s name is in the other two volumes. Thomas Clarkson (28 March 1760 –  26 September 1846), abolitionist, was born at Wisbech, Cambridgeshire, England, and became a leading campaigner against the slave trade in the British Empire. As an Anglican, Clarkson’s “Portraiture” looks at peculiar Quaker practices and reverse-engineers them to show how they help Quaker stay in that Christian zone.
While working for the abolition of slavery, the author encountered many Quakers and was impressed by their moral history. Thomas Clarkson wrote, “I felt also a great do them justice; for ignorance and prejudice had invented many expressions concerning them, to the detriment of their character, when their conduct never gave me reason to suppose, during all my intercourse with them to be true.” These three volumes form a sympathetic history of the Quakers written by a non-Quaker, with a focus on their moral character, discipline, beliefs, peculiar customs, and moral education."

   LAST PUBLICLY SPOKEN WORDS OF THOMAS CLARKSON: (from The Leisure Hour journal, March, 1865) Slavery everywhere was attacked after it had fallen in the British dominions. Joseph Sturge, from the beginning of the new endeavors to the end of his life, was one of the main elements of strength and support. Readers will remember the celebrated conference held at the Freemason's Hall, June 1840, when and where were gathered between 500 and 600 delegates, from all parts of the world, we may say, besides all that was great and good in every philanthropic undertaking. It was a noble assembly. There Thomas Clarkson appeared for the last time in public. We give our readers a condensed account of the scene from the pen of the painter Haydon, who was present as an artist to find materials for one of the greatest pictures.

   "In a few minutes," he says, "an unaffected man got up and informed the meeting that Thomas Clarkson would attend shortly : he begged no tumultuous applause might greet his entrance, as his infirmities were great, and he was too nervous to bear any such expressions for feelings." This was Joseph Sturge. In a few minutes the aged Clarkson came in, gray and bent, leaning on Joseph Sturge for support, and approached with feeble and tottering steps, the middle of the convention. Immediately behind him were his daughter-in-law, the widow of his son, and his little grandson. The old man first appealed to the meeting for a few moments of silent prayer; and says Haydon, "for a minute there was the most intense silence I have ever felt." He spoke a few feeble words : every word was uttered from his heart.

   After urging the members to persevere to the last, til slavery was extinct, lifting his arm and pointing to heaven, his face quivering in emotion, he ended by saying, "May the Supreme Ruler of all human events, at whose disposal are not only the hearts, but the intellects of men -- may He, in His abundant mercy, guide your counsels and give His blessing upon your labours." There was a moment's pause; and then, without an interchange of thoughts or look, the whole of the vast meeting, men and women, said in a tone of subdued and deep feeling, "Amen and amen!"

-- Thomas Clarkson's 1808 First Edition of, The History of the Rise, Progress, and Accomplishment of The Abolition of the African Slave trade by the British Parliament. -- Clarkson starts out by saying, "No subject more pleasing that that of the removal of evils -- Evils have existed almost from the beginning of the world -- but there is a power in our nature to counteract them -- this power increased by Christianity -- of the evils removed by Christianity one of the greatest is the Slave Trade -- The joy we ought to feel on its abolition from a contemplation of the nature of it -- and of the extent of it -- and of the difficulty of subduing it -- Usefulness also of the contemplation of this subject."

-- First Edition (1854) "Life Of Thomas Clarkson" by James Elmes. Thomas Clarkson (1760 – 1846), abolitionist, was born at Wisbech, Cambridgeshire, England, and became a leading campaigner against the slave trade in the British Empire. This book details his contributions toward the abolition of the Slave-Trade and Slavery. Published by Blackader & Co., London. Hardbound in tan waxed cloth. It is an important piece of social history pertaining to this turbulent period in both British and American History. Author, James Elmes (1782 – 1862) was an English architect, civil engineer, and writer on the arts, he was born in London.

-- Thomas Clarkson's book, "The History of the Rise, Progress, and Accomplishment of the Abolition of the African Slave-Trade by the British Parliament" -- 1836 edition written under the supervision of New York University, 276 pages. Published by John S. Taylor, corner of Park-Row and Nassau-Street, Opposite the City Hall. This is the first of a 3  volume set. "The Cabinet of Freedom" under the supervision of  the Hon. William Ray Rev. Prof. Bush of the University of New York, and Gerrit Smith, Esq. There is an engraving of a slave in chains and above the picture are the words "Am I Not a Man and a Brother?" The size is 7 1/2"  X  5".  The book talks about how the slaves were treated on board the slave ships.

-- James Montgomery-- The Abolition of the Slave Trade: A Poem in Four Parts. Very hard to find. 1814, folio size, 10" x 12.5", with many engravings. London: Printed by T. Bensley. The poem "The West Indies," was written to accompany a series of pictures published as a memorial of the abolition of the slave-trade. In this genial labour, to which the poet says he gave his whole mind, as affording him an opportunity of exposing the iniquities of slavery and the slave-trade.
Importance: In 1807 a commission was delivered from the printer Bowyer to write a poem on the abolition of the slave trade, to be published along with other poems on the subject in a handsome illustrated volume. The subject was well adapted to Montgomery's powers, appealing at once to the philanthropic enthusiasm in which his strength lay, and to his own touching associations with the West Indies. Its poem entitled 'The West Indies' accordingly appeared in Bowyer's illustrated publication in 1809. Although rather rhetoric than poetry, is in general well conceived and well expressed, and skilful as well as sincere in its appeals to public sentiment. On its first appearance in Bowyer's volume it proved a failure, but when published separately (London, 1810, 12mo) it obtained great popularity.
James Montgomery:
  Born November 4, 1771, in Ayrshire, Scotland, James Montgomery was brought up and educated by Moravians near Leeds after his parents left for America, never to return. He became an editorial assistant to the Sheffield Register in 1792. Acquiring the newspaper himself, he renamed it the Isis and in it advocated reformist causes at an unpopular time, during the French Revolution, and went to jail for his trouble twice in 1795-96. He returned to his journalism then and published a book of poems about his imprisonment. This led to an avocation in poetry and letters. He brought out volumes of poems and hymns from 1797 until the mid-19th-century. After 25 years in the news business, Montgomery retired from journalism and lived on a Literary Fund pension until his death on April 30, 1854. Throughout his life he actively worked for humanitarian causes and gained the respect and affection of his fellow poets.

-- An intriguing hand written letter (dated March 12, 1792) from Banff, Scotland, written by George Robinson, sent to Cam Haliburton, Esq. Edinburgh. In the letter Robinson states there is a petition to abolish the slave trade in Scotland...
..."Sir: I trust that your sentiments will hopefully accord with mine on the subject of the African slave trade. I have taken the liberty to write you this to inform you that I had the honor to transmit to my worthy friend Mr. Alex Brodie, Member for this district of Burroughs, a petition by appointment from the Magistrates of Council of this Burgh, petitions for the xxxxxxxxxxxx inhabitants of this place xxxxxxxxx  xxxxxxxxx to Mr. Brodie, a petition from Free Persons of this County and one from the Presbyterian xxxxxxxxxxxxxx were sent to Sir James xxxxxxxx, Member for this County for abolishing the Slave Trade. I mention this in case you should think it proper to inscribe it in any of your Edinburgh papers. I am very so hopefully, Sir. Your most obedient servant, George Robinson" (There were some key words that are illegible, or were part of the paper that had been torn when opened in 1792.)
   -- HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF LETTER: William Dickson, a former secretary to the Governor of Barbados (Hon. Edward Hay) and the author of 'Letters on Slavery' (1789), was engaged by the London Anti-Slavery Society to gain support for the abolition movement in Scotland. William Dickson has a diary of a visit to Scotland from January 5th - March 19th, 1792 on behalf of the Committee for the Abolition of the Slave Trade. It is probable that the writer of this letter had personal contact with William Dickson, who originally came from Moffat, Scotland. 
   Let's get a sense of Dickson's feelings about the Slave Trade -- In an 1787 letter to Thomas Clarkson, Dickson states, "Of the Africans, above one fourth perished on the voyage to the West Indies, and four and a half percent more died on average in the fortnight intervening between the days of entry and sale. To close this awful triumph of the King of terrors, about two in five of all whom the planters bought were lost in seasoning within the first three years and before they could be said to have yielded any productive labour. Now if seven years be the average labouring period of bought slaves, a lot of five should yield thirty five years of labour; and two of them having died, each of the other three must yield nearly twelve years or with the three years of seasoning, nearly fifteen years. But to look for fifteen years of even blank existence, without labour, from each of the survivors of a worse than pestilential mortality, heartless and enfeebled as they must generally be, would be madly romantic."        One scholar states that Dickson "one of the most useful and intelligent observers on the institution of slavery in Barbadoes .. he makes many shrewd sociological assessments of the working of the slave system ... an important book for the study of Barbadoes social history." Dickson was an enlightened man of his day, who argued for an end to the slave trade and gradual, but not immediate, emancipation.

-- An extremely rare 1794 edition of "The Journal of John Woolman", printed in Dublin. It is the first edition printed after his death. 464 pages, leather-bound. Woolman is said to be the very first abolitionist in America.
BACKGROUND: John Woolman (October 19, 1720 – October 7, 1772) was an itinerant Quaker preacher, traveling throughout the American colonies, advocating against conscription, military taxation, and particularly slavery. John Woolman came from a family of Friends (Quakers). His grandfather, also named John Woolman, was one of the early settlers of New Jersey. His father Samuel Woolman was a farmer. Their estate was between Burlington and Mount Holly Township in that state. At age 23 his employer asked him to write a bill of sale for a slave. He told his employer that he thought that slave keeping was inconsistent with the Christian religion. Many Friends believed that slavery was bad — even a sin — but there was not a universal condemnation of it among Friends. Some Friends bought slaves from other people in order to treat them humanely and educate them. Other Friends seemed to have no conviction against slavery whatsoever. Woolman took up a concern to minister to Friends and others in remote places. He went on his first ministry trip in 1746 with Isaac Andrews. They went about 1,500 miles round-trip in three months, going as far south as North Carolina. He preached on many topics, including slavery during this and other such trips. In 1754 Woolman wrote Some Considerations on the Keeping of Negroes. He refused to draw up wills transferring slaves. Working on a nonconfrontational, personal level, he individually convinced many Quaker slaveholders to free their slaves. He attempted personally to avoid using the products of slavery; for example, he wore undyed clothing because slaves were used in the making of dyes. Whenever he received hospitality from a slaveholder, he insisted on paying the slaves for their work in attending him. Woolman worked within the Friends traditions of seeking the guidance of the Spirit of Christ and patiently waiting to achieve unity in the Spirit. He went from one Friends meeting to another and expressed his concern about slaveholding. One by one the various meetings began to see the evils of slavery and wrote minutes condemning it. In his lifetime, Woolman did not succeed in eradicating slavery even within the Society of Friends in the United States; however, his personal efforts changed Quaker viewpoints. In 1790 the Society of Friends petitioned the United States Congress for the abolition of slavery. The fair treatment of people of all races is now part of the Friends Testimony of Equality. The Journal of John Woolman is considered to be an important spiritual document.

-- Extracts from The Minutes of the Yearly Meeting Of Friends (Quakers) held in Philadelphia 1856. Philadelphia: T. Ellwood Chapman No. 1 South Fifth Street, 1856. 24 pages with front and back cover. Includes following Meetings: Philadelphia; Abington; Bucks; Concord; Caln; Western; Southern; Burlington; Haddonfield; Salem; Fishing Creek. T. Ellwood Chapman was an important publisher of Quaker and Anti-Slavery tracts in the 1850s and 1860s.

-- "William Lloyd Garrison: The Story of His Life", 1st Edition books (I&II), 1885, by his children.

--  Autographed letter (8” x 9 ¾”) signed, front and back, March 7, 1870, from Wendell Phillips to Rev. Francis Hodgson. “…Hearing that our change of my lecture to the Last Acts, has been objected to and some fault found with yourself…I desire to say…that the fault, if any, belongs entirely to me….”
Background: Wendell Phillips
(1811-1884) was a prominent abolitionist. A wealthy graduate of Harvard Law School, Phillips sacrificed social status and a prospective political career in order to join the antislavery movement. His reputation as an inspirational orator was established with his address at an abolitionist meeting in 1837 to protest the murder of Elijah Lovejoy. He became an associate of William Lloyd Garrison and lectured widely at meetings of the American Anti-Slavery Society, serving as its president from 1865 to 1870. He also advocated prohibition, woman suffrage, prison reform, regulation of corporations, and labour reform.

 8. Steel/wood engravings, etchings, handwritten/signed letters, books, and/or CDVs (many with facsimile or genuine signatures) of anti-slavery abolitionists, like John Jay, Henry Thornton (relative of William Wilberforce), Isaac Hopper (founded the Underground Railroad), Charles Dickens, John Greenleaf Whittier, Thomas Babington Macaulay, Daniel Webster, Ben Franklin, William Wadsworth Longfellow, William Henry Seward, William Wilberforce, Granville Sharp, Isaac Hopper, Thomas Clarkson, Salmon P. Chase, Henry Wilson, Alphonse de Lamartine, Horace Greeley, John Andrews, Schuyler Colfax, Edwin Stanton, Philip Sheridan, William T. Sherman, Ulysses Grant, Cassius Clay, Hannah Moore, Owen Lovejoy, Gerrit Smith, Joshua Giddings, John Quincy Adams, Benjamin Lundy, Oliver Howard, William Buckingham, James Montgomery, David G. Farragut, Thaddeus Stevens, Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton, Zachary Macauley, Joseph Sturge, Wendell Phillips, Harriet Beecher Stowe, William Cowper, Charles Fox, William Cullen Bryant, Fanny (Frances) Kemble, William Forster, William Pitt, Frederick Douglass, William Lloyd Garrison, William Henry Brisbane, Edmund Quincy, Henry Ward Beecher, Martin Delany, Charles Sumner, Elihu Burritt, Henry Wilson, Lord Brougham, James Russell Lowell, William Smith and many others...

 9. "The Internal Administration of The Imperial Guard 1945 E.C."280 pages. This very rare book is hand stamped by the Imperial Guard and contains the rules, regulations, and forms of the Imperial Guard of His Majesty Haile Selassie I. This book contains a nice photo of Haile Selassie I, many fold out forms and lists showing the many regulations of the Imperial Guard. Intriguing.
-- World Tour Book of His Majesty Haile Selassie's visit to America in 1954 (mint condition), published by Ethiopian Government.

 10. League of Nations: Committee Reports on the Question of Slavery. 18 different reports dating from 1923-1930 -- 2 are in French, the rest in English that deal with the question of slavery, including slavery conventions. The reports are 8" x 14' tall. There is one report: 'Communication with the Government of Liberia' (1930) that is a bound booklet of 128 pp. The rest of the booklets are 1pp-20pp each. Includes: Communication with the Government of Sudan, Annual Reports, Communication with the Government of Liberia.

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 11. Handwritten letter signed by author of Count of Monte Cristo and The Three Musketeers, Alexandre Dumas, along with a First Edition set of his major works. Alexandre Dumas was born in Villes-Cotterêts.
BACKGROUND: His grandfather was a French nobleman, who had settled in Santo Domingo (now part of Haiti); his paternal grandmother, Marie-Cessette, was an Afro-Caribbean, who had been a black slave in the French colony (now part of Haiti). Dumas did not generally define himself as a black man and there is not much evidence that he encountered overt racism during his life. However, his works were popular among the 19th-century African-Americans, partly because in The Count of Monte-Cristo, the falsely imprisoned Edmond Dantès, may be read as a parable of emancipation. In a shorter work, Georges (1843, George), Dumas examined the question of race and colonialism. The main character, a half-French mulatto, leaves Mauritius to be educated in France, and returns to avenge himself for the affronts he had suffered as a boy --
order postcard of Dumas
-- December 15th, 1870 issue of New York Herald, "Death of Alexandre Dumas".




-- First Day Cover French Stamp about Victor Schoelcher -- Victor (1804-1893) was a French humanitarian, statesman and writer who devoted his life and fortune to the abolition of slavery in the French colonies. Victor was born in Paris in 1804. He was the son of a wealthy porcelain manufacturer, and after a short period of secondary education, he took over his father’s factory in Paris. However, it soon became clear that his interests lay elsewhere. He was a humanitarian thinker and chose music, reading, writing and politics over business and industry. In 1829-1831 Schoelcher was sent to the Americas in search of new customers for the business. On his journey in Mexico, Cuba and the southern United States, he discovered the harsh realities of slavery and began his career as an abolitionist writer. His writings centered around the social, economic and political advantages that could be gained from the abolition of slavery, drawn from a comparative analysis of the results of emancipation in the British colonies (1834-1838). Schoelcher believed that the production of sugar should continue in the colonies with the construction of large factories in replacement of slave labor. When the Revolution of 1848 broke out in France, Schoelcher returned with haste to take up appointment as Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies. He set up and presided over a commission for the abolition of slavery. Under his direction the commission prepared a decree abolishing slavery in all French territories, which the provisional government adopted on 27 April 1848. As a result, more than 260.000 people in the Americas, Africa and the Indian Ocean gained their freedom. In 1851, Schoelcher opposed the coup d’état of Louis Napoleon and was forced into exile in England and Belgium until Napoleon’s fall in 1870. On his return, Schoelcher regained his place in the National Assembly for Martinique and Guadalupe, sitting on the extreme left. In 1875 he was elected senator for life. Victor Schoelcher died in 1893. His ashes were transferred to the Pantheon in Paris in 1949.

 12. Abridgement of the Debates of Congress from 1789 to 1856 from Gales and Seaton's Annals of Congress; from Their Register of Debates; and from the Official Reported Debates. By John C. Rives - Vol XII covers the debates of the 22nd Congress, 1832-1836. New York: D. Appleton, 1860. Assumed First. There are several entries on slavery – many, many pages on the slavery issues in DC. Also anti-slavery incendiary publications, slavery in Arkansas, slavery memorials, abolition of slavery, etc.. 8vo - over 7¾" - 9¾" tall. Full-Leather.

--  The Debates and Proceedings in the Congress of the United States; with an appendix, containing important state papers and public documents, and all the laws of a public nature; with a copious index. Volume II, comprising (with volume 1) the period from March 3, 1789, to March 3, 1791, inclusive. Compiled from authentic materials, by Joseph Gales, Senior. Washington: Gales and Seaton, 1834. Volume 2 only which covers February 18, 1790 to March 3, 1791. Also includes the 188 page appendix w/ "reports and other documents". In late 18th/ early 19th century period full leather binding.

-- Supreme Court Reports (1801 - 1882) -- a collection of 98 books of US Supreme Court Reports. They were published in 1903 by the Banks Law Publishing Company. They cover Supreme Court case law from 1801 to 1882. Imagine what has been stated about the Missouri Compromise, the Dred Scott Decision and others relating to the Black experience in America. Important tool in the hands of researchers. Very important and scarce volumes -- that's 98 volumes!

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Congressional Globe, 1859

-- An extremely rare bound historical account of the Congress (468 pages), titled APPENDIX TO THE CONGRESSIONAL GLOBE, dated 1859 with the first part being the speech given by Pres. James Buchanan to the Joint Session of the Congress. Excellent historical account of the actual word for word debates that went on just prior to the outbreak of the Civil War., the slavery question, the expansion of slavery into the Territories, the Admission of Kansas to the Union is hotly debated by both slave-holding and free-state supporters. This included the debate concerning the FAMOUS BOOK BY HELPER, called at this time, THE BLACK BIBLE, this book was banned in the south. The southern Congressmen are up in arms over the content of this book depicting the south as barbarians with their slaves, etc.  News of the re-election of Stephen A. Douglas, the Homestead Bill, debates over the marriage of Mormons to many wives, Details of the famous TEXAS REGIMENT, and their action against the frontier Indians.  Much on slavery is debated. The DRED SCOTT DECISION (1857 US Supreme Court, 19 U.S. 393, 407, 15 L.ED. 691, decision said, "No white man was bound to respect the rights of an African".) is debated in detail. Details of ABRAHAM LINCOLN are brought forth by the Senator from Illinois and the newly established Republican Party. Each page printed in three columns for maximum information; foxed throughout. 

-- Congressional Globe 1858 debates proceeding US congress. The Congressional Globe: Containing the Debates and Proceedings of the Second Session of the Thirty-Fifth Congress: Also, of the Special Session of the Senate. by John C. Rives. Washington: John C. Rives, 1859. Mid-19th century period 1/2 leather binding. Smooth spine in five gilt-ruled compartments w/ gilt title and date. Blue marbled paper covered boards w/ leather board corners. Binding tight and sound. 1000s of pages of information on the proceedings of Congress. Index for both the US Senate and the US House of Representatives. This covers Dec. 10, 1858 through Feb. 14, 1859. Includes much on the Native Americans and the Slavery Trade bill. VG+ near fine condition, very little wear. Measures 9" x 12." 1040 pp.

-- 1862 Congressional Globe, 960 pages. Containing the debates and proceedings of the Second Session of the Thirty-seventh Congress. Edited by John C. Rives and published at the Congressional Globe Office, Washington, 1862.  very slight occasional foxing, otherwise in remarkably good condition.. Includes many debates on military support, slavery, secession, and other issues relevant to the Civil War. Scarce item.

-- 1854 Congressional Report -- African Slave Trade -- Brazil. 33d Congress, 1st Session - Senate - Ex Doc. No. 47.  14 pages. Titled "Message From The President of the United States, Communicating, In compliance with a resolution of the Senate, the correspondence between Mr. Schenck, United States Minister to Brazil, and the Secretary of State, in relation to the African slave trade.

-- Abraham Lincoln signed 25 copies of the Emancipation Proclamation. In this collection are two copies of the Emancipation Proclamation directly from one of the originals signed by Lincoln in 1863.

BACKGROUND: The Lincoln-Douglas Debates were a series of debates that took place during the 1858 presidential campaign in seven locations across Illinois. Even though Douglas won the election, these debates had launched Lincoln into the national spotlight. These debates are considered a major contributor to the separating of the South from the Union and ultimately leading to the Civil War.

-- "The Emancipation", January 24, 1863 Harper's Weekly. Famous double page engraving by Thomas Nast, the subject of which is Emancipation. Measures 22" x 15 1/2". Condition is very good.

-- 1860 Congressional Report Civil War, 835 pages. A lot of discussion about slavery-related issues.

-- Rare Senate report (March 8, 1860) stating that 7 families are asking for compensation for slaves taken and carried away by the British during the War of 1812.
-- House of Representative Resolution (February 26, 1866) about the "Protection of Emancipated Slaves and Freedmen."

-- Front Cover Portraits of Dred Scott, His Wife, Harriet and Children Eliza & Lizzie!. Multi-Column Details of His Life, Family and The Decision of The Supreme Court! An Original and Complete Issue of LESLIE'S WEEKLY dated  June 27, 1857. Fine Illustrations with Reports Including: A Front Cover Series of Portraits with Indepth Report: "VISIT TO DRED SCOTT---HIS FAMILY--INCIDENTS OF HIS LIFE---DECISION OF THE SUPREME COURT---ELIZA AND LIZZIE, CHILDREN OF DRED SCOTT, HIS WIFE, HARRIET" Fine Descriptive Report!
-- The Eastern Argus, a very rare historical newspaper, printed in Portland, Maine on September 12, 1858 announcing: "The Death of Dred Scott."

BACKGROUND: Dred Scott (1799 - Sept. 17, 1858), was a slave in the USA who sued unsuccessfully for his freedom in the famous Dred Scott v. Sanford case of 1857. His case was based on the fact that he and his wife Harriet were slaves, but had lived in states and territories where slavery was illegal, including Illinois and Minnesota (which was then part of the Wisconsin Territory). The United States Supreme Court ruled seven to two against Scott, finding that neither he, nor any person of African ancestry, could claim citizenship in the United States, and that therefore Scott could not bring suit in federal court under diversity of citizenship rules. Moreover, Scott's temporary residence outside Missouri did not effect his emancipation under the Missouri  Compromise, since reaching that result would deprive Scott's owner of his property.

Dred Scott, his wife
(Harriet) and two daughters
(Eliza and Lizzie).

CHIEF JUSTICE TANEY:    Taney wrote for the majority. In the first section of his opinion, he held that the case must be dismissed for lack of jurisdiction. Scott, being a Negro, could be a citizen of a state–that was a matter of state law –- but he could not be a citizen of the United States, within the meaning of the Constitution, so as to be able to bring a case in federal court. In the course of explaining why members of the black race could not be citizens, Taney argued that representatives of the slaveholding states would never have consented to a Constitution that had the potential to confer citizenship on Negroes. Imagine, he wrote, the consequences:

“It cannot be believed that the large slaveholding States regarded them as included in the word citizens, or would have consented to a Constitution which might compel them to receive them in that character from another State. For if they were so received, and entitled to the privileges and immunities of citizens, it would exempt them from the operation of the special laws and from the police regulations which they considered to be necessary for their own safety. It would give to persons of the negro race, who were recognized as citizens in any one State of the Union, the right to enter every other State whenever they pleased, singly or in companies, without pass or passport, and without obstruction, to sojourn there as long as they pleased, to go where they pleased at every hour of the day or night without molestation, unless they committed some violation of law for which a white man would be punished; and it would give them the full liberty of speech in public and in private upon all subjects upon which its own citizens might speak; to hold public meetings upon political affairs, and to keep and carry arms wherever they went. And all of this would be done in the face of the subject race of the same color, both free and slaves, and inevitably producing discontent and insubordination among them, and endangering the peace and safety of the State.”

It is impossible, it would seem, to believe that the great men of the slaveholding States, who took so large a share in framing the Constitution of the United States and exercised so much influence in procuring its adoption, could have been so forgetful or regardless of their own safety and the safety of those who trusted and confided in them.   It is noteworthy that Taney placed the right to “keep and carry arms wherever they went,” along with the rights of free speech and public assembly, as unquestionable privileges of citizenship.

-- Reports of the Committee on the Conduct of the War: "Fort Pillow Massacre" and also a report titled "Returned Prisoners", no date of publication, but probably May, 1864 just after the reports were made public.  Graphic Eyewitness testimony and question and answer sessions. Four prints of prisoners. In April 1864, the Union garrison at Fort Pillow, a Confederate-built earthen fortification and a Union-built inner redoubt, was overlooking the Mississippi River about forty river miles above Memphis, under the command of Maj. Lionel F. Booth. Confederate Maj. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest attacked the fort on April 12 with a cavalry division of approximately 2,500 men. Approximately 300 African American troops were massacred here. Up to that time comparatively few of our men had been killed; but immediately upon occupying the place the rebels commenced an indiscriminate butchery of the whites and blacks, including the wounded. Both white and black were bayoneted, shot, or sabred; even dead bodies were horribly mutilated, and children of seven and eight years, and several negro women killed in cold blood. Soldiers unable to speak from wounds were shot dead, and their bodies rolled down the banks into the river. The dead and wounded negroes were piled in heaps and burned, and several citizens, who had joined our forces for protection, were killed or wounded. Out of the garrison of six hundred only two hundred remained alive. Three hundred of those massacred were negroes; five were buried alive. Casualties were high and only sixty-two of the U.S. Colored Troops survived the fight. Many accused the Confederates of perpetrating a massacre of the black troops, and that controversy continues today. The Confederates evacuated Fort Pillow that evening so they gained little from the attack except to temporarily disrupt Union operations. The Fort Pillow Massacre became a Union rallying cry and cemented resolve to see the war through to its conclusion. The massacre at Fort Pillow had raised the question in every mind; does the United States mean to allow its soldiers to be butchered in cold blood?

-- Remarkably rare Journal of the Senate of the Commonwealth of Virginia: Begun and Held in the City of Richmond, 1859-1860 (1500 pages!!!). James E. Goode, Senate Printer. This is an enormous volume that includes hundreds of documents including Governor Reports and other state reports, featuring reports from the Generals dealing with the John Brown/Harper’s Ferry situation, information on slavery and many other important documents. Here are some examples:
a. "Communication from the Governor of this State in Respect to His Action on the Harpers Ferry Outrage" (66 pages)
   b. "Communication from the Governor asking Relief For Edward McCabe who was Wounded at Harpers Ferry"  (2 pages)
   c. "Communication from the Adjunct General Relative to Transportation of Troops to Charlestown and Harpers Ferry" (2 pages)
   d. "Communication from the Governor of the State Enclosing the Report of General Taliaferro. Commander at Harpers Ferry (4 pages)
   e. "Report of the Commissioners Appointed to Audit and Pay the Expenses Incurred by the Late Invasion at Harpers Ferry (54 pages)
   f. "Communication from the Governor of Virginia Enclosing Letters from the Gov of Ohio relative to Requisitions for Fugitives From Justice (22 pages)
   g. "Hostile Legislation of the North" This is a 64-page report detailing the legislation hostile to Slavery emanating from the Northern States: Maine, Connecticut, Vermont, New Hampshire, Indiana, Ohio, Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Iowa, Minnesota. This Special Report even shows the legislative response of the Northern States toward the Dred Scott decision, which occurred in 1857 at the Old Court House, St. Louis, MO.
   h. This Journal also includes an 11-page report with "Extracts from the Index of Colonial Records" from 1585 to 1782. Here are some examples: 1585 (Proposals to Inhabit Porte Ferdinand, Discovery from James Forte into the Main), 1607 (State of the Virginia Plantation), 1609 (100 men Planted at the Falls of James River, Memo Relating to the Colony of Virginia), 1610 (250 Persons go out as Planters, Descriptive Letter), 1613 (Suit in Chancery Instituted by Virginia Company to Compel Adventurers to Pay Up), 1705 (1800 Negroes Imported This Year. Sold at 54 Pounds a Pair), 1730 (Proclamation Against Unlawful Meetings of Slaves), 1731 (An Opinion Asked Whether Slaves Baptized into the Christian Church can Continue in Slavery), 1741 (List of Naval Officers Enlisted for the Invasion of Canada), 1749 (Notice of the Trade to Africa), 1782 (Dunmore's Plan to Subdue the Colonies by Means of Indians and negroes. Cruden's Plan for Arming 10,000 Slaves Handed in by Lord Dunmore)...


-- Incredibly rare JOURNAL OF THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, BEING THE FIRST SESSION OF THE THIRTY-EIGHTH CONGRESS, BEGUN AND HELD AT THE CITY OF WASHINGTON, DECEMBER 7, 1863, in the Eighty-Eighth Year of the Independence of the United States, 1042 pages (pictured to the right), Washington: Government Printing Office, 1863. This Senate Journal, from the Third Session of the 38th Congress, lasted from December 7, 1863 to July 4, 1864, a crucial time in our nation’s history. Each 19th-century volume of the Journal of the United States Senate provides a record of the Senate’s activities for a particular session of Congress. Unlike the Congressional Globe (later the Congressional Record), that record does not include the words spoken on the floor of the Senate, but rather all the procedural occurrences, and in particular the introduction of proposed legislation and resolutions, along with the decisions and votes of the senators on these items. However, each volume does open with the President’s Annual Message to Congress (now called the State of the Union address), with other important written documents that he may submit to Congress.


   In the case of Abraham Lincoln’s annual message, which in this volume occupies pages 8-18, the message is followed immediately by the most famous and significant document that Lincoln ever signed: the Emancipation Proclamation, dated December 8, 1863, the same date as that of his annual message. The annual message naturally deals with the ongoing Civil War, as well as with foreign affairs, Indian matters, the economy, and Lincoln’s plans for eventual reconstruction of the Union. The Emancipation Proclamation (pp. 18-20) lacks an elegant style, being fundamentally a war measure, justified by the exigencies of the conflict and applicable by its terms only to those currently held in slavery beyond the Union’s power of control. Nevertheless, every prescient statesman saw that there would be no turning back, and that slavery was doomed throughout the United States, as soon enshrined constitutionally by the Thirteenth Amendment (probably the least cited, because most effective, of all the amendments to our constitution). The Emancipation Proclamation of course received widespread attention upon its official appearance, which followed the publication of a preliminary version in August 1863, but this volume marks its official publication within a Senate Journal.


   In addition, the pages of this volume are chock-full of interesting Civil War items, though they are often buried in the procedural record. For example, on page 233 we find Lincoln’s message to the Senate submitting the decision from the Interior Department fixing the point in Iowa, across the river from Omaha, at which the Union Pacific Railroad would start its construction. Page 362 deals with amendments to a bill to accept only three-year enlistments into the Union Army, and to provide that as of January 1, 1864, “all persons of color who have been or may be mustered into the service of the United States shall receive the same uniform, clothing, arms . . . as other soldiers of the regular or volunteer forces.” The creation and maintenance of the Internal Revenue Service, then a new concept for raising money through taxation, occupies many pages of the record, just as it would today. The actual record ends on page 768, followed by a mammoth Index of the Bills and Joint Resolutions of the Senate and House of Representatives during the session of Congress, and an even longer 175 pages!) index, which makes it easy to look up any particular topic, with, for example, two dozen references to the proposed constitutional amendment to abolish slavery, or, much more quietly, a note of the memorial (i.e., petition) requesting equality of pay for his soldiers from Thomas Wentworth Higginson, the colonel of the 1st regiment of South Carolina volunteers, the first black regiment to fight in the Civil War (see the movie “Glory” for a stunning visual presentation). Messages of various sorts from President Lincoln appear at more than three dozen places, dealing with topics such as the treatment of Kansas troops when captured by the Confederates, the conditions of the people in East Tennessee (who, Lincoln long but vainly hoped, would provide a bastion of support for the Union), Mexican affairs, and the pursuit of hostile bands of Sioux Indians into the Hudson’s Bay territories. All in all, this is a terrific record of the United States at the great cusp of the Civil War, as a Union victory finally seemed near—though not so near, as things turned out, as many hoped during the first half of 1864. The book measures 5 ¾ by 9 inches and is 2 ½ inches thick. It is bound in leather boards, with red and black spine labels, noting that this book once was part of the Office of the Secretary of State. The boards are holding well, though the hinges have grown quite tender, especially in front, and they are in pretty decent shape, only somewhat scuffed and dented at the corners. Inside the pages are in good shape, only slightly browned, still supple and of high quality.

-- REPORT OF THE JOINT COMMITTEE ON THE CONDUCT OF THE WAR. IN THREE PARTS. Washington: Government Printing Office. 1863. 37th Congress, 3rd Session. Rep. Com. No. 108. Part III—Department of the West. As the Civil War entered its third year, a feeling arose throughout the country that the Union armies had failed to measure up to their Confederate opponents in organization, not to mention results—a feeling highly reinforced when General Ambrose Burnside so bungled the battle of Fredericksburg that his removal inevitably followed, leaving his only legacy the word “sideburns,” of which Ambrose had a marvelously showy pair. Congress decided to investigate matters, and the three-volume report that appeared in the spring of 1863 related in long detail what had made the situation so dicey in all the theaters of war. This third volume deals with the Department of the West, an area of extreme importance (of course, they all were) because the state of Missouri was closely divided between northern and southern loyalties, and keeping it in the Union was essential, if only to maintain control over the Mississippi and Missouri rivers. Unfortunately, the political general John Charles Frémont, the Republican party’s first presidential candidate, had his own ideas about what to do that brooked little interference from his superiors in Washington, Abraham Lincoln in particular. Eventually Frémont had to go, but initially his fame, his well-proclaimed love of the Union, and his interest in eliminating slavery made him too well fixed to oust, even though this last-mentioned attitude risked losing the affections of Union-loyal Missourians, who saw in him a dangerous abolitionist. Basically, the investigatory committee was dominated by hard-line anti-slavery figures, who suspected that Lincoln and his administration were dangerously soft on the slavery question; for their part, as Lincoln well knew from his boyhood in Kentucky and Indiana, this issue had the potential to divide the Union, and he had to move slowly to let public opinion crystallize in favor of abolishing slavery entirely. In its 659 pages, this volume presents the record of testimony taken by the investigatory committee from military and other figures that deals with the military situation in 1861 and 1862, not only in Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, and neighboring territories, but also, and in contradiction of its title, with matters in Virginia and neighboring states (this material presumably should have gone into the first two volumes, but they were already complete). Of this material from the eastern theater of war, much refers to the debacle of the second battle of Bull Run, apparently so rich in such stories that more remained to be told after the primary treatment in earlier volumes. A typical quotation appears (p. 654) in the testimony of a Colonel McLean: “I have seen privileges granted to secessionists that I think they ought not to enjoy . . . Secessionists were inviting out the rebel prisoners to their residences, and entertaining them at dinners.” This volume measures 6 by 9 inches and is 1 ¼ inches thick, bound in leather boards, with brown tape now covering the spine and extending onto those boards, which are in good shape except at their edges and corners, which are damaged. The book’s binding is holding firmly, and the pages remain clean and supple, though some of them are quite noticeably browned. Those who want to study how the early years of the Civil War unfolded, as presented by Congress in this investigation, will find this book chock-full of variegated information.

Declaration of Independence
Silver Plaque

-- Absolutely rare bas relief copy in miniature of the DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE with signatures and a vignette of the Signers at the center.  Done by S H Black in 1859.  Says at bottom "Entered according to Act of Congress in the year 1859 by S H Black in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of U S for Southern District of New York".  This Plaque or bas relief is executed in silver over brass with silvering almost completely intact.  Plaque measures 7 1/2 x 8 1/4 inches (complete with original gold frame measures 9 x 9 3/4.  An outstanding example of pre Civil War Americana. This is an original old item, not a reprint, copy or a restrike.

-- Christian Advocate and Journal, New York, December 11, 1862. An 8-page original Civil War Era newspaper in very good condition. Bright, durable and readable. Contents include, Emancipation: The President's Scheme -- The preliminary Emancipation Proclamation to take effect on January 1, 1863. There are extracts of the President's second annual message to Congress given December 1, 1862.


 13. Genuine "Track & Field" ticket stubs and ticket books from the 4 days Jesse Owens won the four gold medals (1936 Olympics in Hitler's Germany), in the actual arena at the four events where Jesse Owens won his four Gold medals...including Opening Day and Closing Day Ceremony tickets. It is exciting to know that the person holding these tickets actually saw Jesse win the following:   1st Gold = Aug 3rd (100m)  2nd Gold = Aug 4th (long jump)  3rd Gold = Aug 5th (200m) 4th Gold = Aug 9th (4x100m) -- order postcard of Jesse Owens

-- A ticket book containing all nine tickets for the 1936 Track and Field events (August 1-9), still attached...with two tickets unused. Mint. The photo is of Jesse receiving gold medal for the Long Jump -->
-- Also rare August 1936 German and American newspapers and 1936 German Olympics books with images of Jesse (with other African American athletes) and write-ups.
-- Plus, two mint sets of German 1936 Olympics postal stamps, with official cancellation mark of the Berlin Olympics, both sets signed by Jesse Owens. Have not heard of another set signed by Jesse.
-- All 30 editions/volumes of "Olympia Zeitung," the official German newspaper of the 1936 Olympics. Many photos and articles about Jesse Owens and other African American athletes.
An hard-to-find original seating chart and order form from the Official Organizing Committee for the Berlin Olympics, "Organisationskomitee Fur Die XL Olympiade Berlin 1936." It is a four page piece with diagram of the venues and price of tickets for the different events. This seating chart helps us determine the approximate location of the ticket-holders while watching Jesse Owens win events.
-- Rare 1936 propaganda postcard with Adolph Hitler pictured at work shoveling dirt.

Jesse Owens receiving 1 of 4 Gold Medals. This medal was for his win in the Long Jump.


 14. A tin that, to put it mildly, is of great historical significance. It is Madame CJ Walker's Glossine with the statement on the front, "For Beatifying and Softening Kinky Hair." Madame CJ Walker was an early industrial pioneer around the time of other industrial titans such as Carnegie and Rockefeller. She became, as some say, the first African American millionaire in the United States. This is open to debate once people discover that Annie Malone (below) actually taught Madam Walker. She did so simply by inventing a line of cosmetics specifically for Black people. She capitalized on an untapped market at the time and the rest is history. This is a rare tin to find. The condition is excellent, measuring 2 inches across.


-- 1926 First Edition copy of Poro College in Pictures. -- a short history of its development. The many images of the college are absolutely stunning, costing over a half a million dollars to construct! The Founder and President of Poro College was none other than Annie Malone. Annie was the founder of hair care product line for African Americans; developed business into the Poro System, a network of franchised agent-operators who operated salons under Malone's guidelines using Poro products. She founded Poro College, 1917, in St. Louis, MO, the first school for the training of beauty culture specialists for African American clientele. She manufactured a line of beauty products for black women and created a unique distribution system that helped tens of thousands of black women gain self respect and economic independence. The college trained women as agents for Poro products and by 1926 claimed to have graduated some 75,000 agents located throughout the world including the Caribbean. However, her contributions to African American culture are often overlooked because her business empire collapsed from mismanagement. One of her students, Madame C.J. Walker, later created a similar enterprise and is largely credited with originating the black beauty business, a feat that rightly belongs to Malone.

Annie Malone

-- BACKGROUND: Annie Turnbo Malone (1869-1957) was one of the richest African American women in the United States at one time just a generation after slavery had ended in the country. During the 1920s, Malone was reported to have been worth fourteen million dollars. Founder of an extremely successful line of hair-care products, Malone exhibited both a sharp mind for marketing as well as an overly generous cash disbursement policy. As her business grew increasingly prosperous, Malone neglected to keep a tight rein on in-house finances, while at the same time bestowing large sums of money to worthy charitable organizations; such policies eventually spelled the end of her large enterprise. Malone's dramatic rise in the hair-care field has often been overshadowed by that of one of her former employees, Madame C. J. Walker, but it was Malone, historians assert, who developed the first successful formulas and marketing strategies aimed at straightening African American hair without damaging it.

-- Madame C.J. Walker: Almost-impossible--to-find Hair Glossine (unused sample tin, with product untouched) and Superfine Face Powder (actual unused and untouched product) in mint condition and a tin of Hair & Scalp Preparation (excellent condition, with a little bit left in the bottom of the tin) from Madam Walker's cosmetic business (early 1900s). These are very scarce vintage items, especially with the still-unused product intact!!! Born Sarah Breedlove on December 23, 1867 on a Delta, Louisiana plantation, this daughter of former slaves transformed herself from an uneducated farm laborer and laundress into the twentieth century's most successful, self-made women entrepreneur millionairess.

-- The collection owns seven (7) Madam Walker tins of hair care products.
-- Vintage wood handled pressing combs (twelve) are in used, as-found condition. They've been in a storage building for years. The brand name on the handles is "Black Beauty," similar to what Madam Walker used in her business. They measure approximately 9" long. >>>>>
-- Nine (9) small bottles of Madam C. J. Walker's Perfumes (Carnation, Gardenia & Wisteria (spelled Wistaria on bottles).
These seem to be very scarce. We have researched high and low for information about these perfumes bottles. What we discovered was that the perfumes were not among the original products manufactured during Madam Walker's life (1867-1919) and probably were added during the late 1930s or early 1940s. We did review a copy of the mail order form from the 1944 Madam C. J. Walker Yearbook and the three perfumes were listed. At least now we can confirm that it was an authentic product sold by the Madam C. J. Walker Manufacturing Company in 1944.

Pressing Combs

-- The Black Dispatch (Oklahoma City African American newspaper), March 30, 1919, with large lettering near the top of the front page:"Madam C.J.Walker At Rest." The sub-headline on the front page reads: "Madam Walker Dies."
-- Five tins of "Sweet Georgia Brown" Hair Dressing Pomade, 1930s.
-- An empty one gallon can of Posner's Shampoo Oil (Cleansing Hair and Scalp without Water).
-- Rare tin of La Jean Pressing Oil Compound.

  15. First Edition copy (1852) of the British "Uncle Tom's Cabin", written by Harriet Beecher Stowe, published by John Cassell before the US edition, illustrated by George Cruikshank with 27 woodcuts.
-- Another First Edition copy of "Uncle Tom's Cabin" published in UK (1852) by Clarke & Co. with 50 splendid engravings!  (In contrast, the US First Edition only had 6 engravings.)
-- First Edition, "Dred: A Tale of the Great Dismal Swamp", Harriet Beecher Stowe, 1856 (2 sets)
-- First Edition, "Men of Our Times", by Harriet Beecher Stowe, 1868 (2 copies).
-- Vintage 1895 stereo view of Uncle Tom and Eva.

 16. Scarce First Edition copy of Stowe’s”A Key To Uncle Tom's Cabin", published in London (1853). It contains 595 pages of the original facts, documents, and corroborative statements upon which the story "Uncle Tom's Cabin" is founded.
-- Five copies of the "Uncle Tom's Cabin, Young Folks Edition" (1890)
-- First Edition copy of the scarce "Uncle Tom's Cabin" (1852) Sheet Music.


-- Three late 1800s German editions of "Onkel Tom's Hutte" Each edition is in great condition.
-- Onkel Tom's Hytte (Danish edition) by Harriet Beecher Stowe, Book Description: John C. Winston & Co., Philadelphia, 1897. Hardback. Foxing on many pages Solid binding, 8vo, 668pp. Heel and head of spine crushed. Cover somewhat darkened or soiled but the three color embossed illustration still visible... Colored end sheets starting to crack. Text clean, over 100 illustrations by celebrated artists. Text in Danish. The stamp of Hoey Publishing Co., Chicago, IL appears on the title page.
: This is one of the most influential books of the nineteenth century and caused a stir in Denmark, Germany and other European countries. From Wikipedia....."Uncle Tom's Cabin; or, Life Among the Lowly is an anti-slavery novel by American author Harriet Beecher Stowe. Published in 1852, the novel had a profound effect on attitudes toward African Americans and slavery in the United States, so much so in the latter case that the novel intensified the sectional conflict leading to the American Civil War. Stowe, a Connecticut-born teacher at the Hartford Female Academy and an active abolitionist, focused the novel on the character of Uncle Tom, a long-suffering Black slave around whom the stories of other characters—both fellow slaves and slave owners—revolve. The sentimental novel depicts the cruel reality of slavery while also asserting that Christian love can overcome something as destructive as enslavement of fellow human beings. Uncle Tom's Cabin was the best-selling novel of the 19th century (and the second best-selling book of that century, following the Bible) and is credited with helping fuel the abolitionist cause in the 1850s. In the first year after it was published, 300,000 copies of the book were sold in the United States alone. The book's impact was so great that when Abraham Lincoln met Stowe at the start of the American Civil War, Lincoln is often quoted as having declared, "So this is the little lady who made this big war." The book, and even more the plays it inspired, also helped create a number of stereotypes about Blacks, many of which endure to this day. These include the affectionate, dark-skinned mammy; the Pickaninny stereotype of black children; and the Uncle Tom, or dutiful, long-suffering servant faithful to his white master or mistress. In recent years, the negative associations with Uncle Tom's Cabin have, to an extent, overshadowed the historical impact of the book as a "vital antislavery tool."

-- Two rare First Edition 1858 copies of "Truth Stranger than Fiction Father Henson's Story of His Own Life" with an introduction by Mrs. Harriet Stowe and with illustrated frontispiece of Josiah Henson. Published by John P. Jewett and Company, Boston, hardcover edition. Henson was an American slave who escaped to Canada, founding a school for fugitive slaves in Canada. He was a conductor of the Underground Railroad and a member of the Canadian Army (his image is on recently offered Canadian Stamps).
Josiah Henson (1789-1883) has been called "the most controversial former slave ever to make his way to freedom and safety in Upper Canada." Born on a plantation in Charles County, Maryland. Henson, early on in life was shown the cruelty and brutality of slavery. Henson’s father once tried to defend his mother from an overseer. His punishment was 100 lashes, an ear cut off and his sale to another slave owner further south. His father was never heard from again. In 1830 his slave owner, Amos Riley secretly arranged his sale which would separate Henson from his family. Upon learning of the plan Henson escaped north to Canada with his wife and his children. After 3 years of working as a farm laborer, the idea of a self supporting Black Colony began to form in Henson’s mind. He hoped for a population that would be self employed and would have a chance to get a general education. His dream became a reality when he helped to create the Dawn Settlement near Chatham, Ont. Henson’s life was recorded in a book titled, "The Life of Josiah Henson, Formally a Slave, Now an Inhabitant of Canada." It is from this book, many believe that American Author Harriet Beecher Stowe got the basis for her popular novel "Uncle Tom’s Cabin." Josiah Henson was active until his death, lecturing throughout Canada and the United States. While he was fond of the fame and prestige, his main goal in life was to improve the living conditions for Upper Canada’s Black population.



  17. National Bank of Boston check from Ticknor and Fields (owners of Atlantic Monthly) to Harriet Beecher Stowe (signed Nov. 17, 1863) most probably as payment ($100) for her compelling Atlantic Monthly article (April, 1863), "Sojourner Truth, The Libyan Sibyl".
-- Two copies of the 1863 Atlantic Monthly article about Sojourner Truth written by Harriet Beecher Stowe. This is most probably the article associated with the check -->
-- The Atlantic Monthly, a magazine of Literature and Politics. VOL. XI. Boston: Ticknor and Fields, 135, Washington Street. London: Trubner and Company. MDCCCLXIII, 1863. 1st Edition. 788 pages. Articles include: Sojourner Truth, the Libyan Sibyl, Benjamin Banneker The Negro Astronomer, and Slavery and Secession in America.

 Check signed by Harriet Beecher Stowe

No images on this page may be used without permission
© 2005-2008
Joel A. Freeman, Ph.D.

-- Two original broadsides (posters) for Parsons & Pool's presentation of Uncle Tom's Cabin. Printed on very thin newsprint, it measures 9 5/16" X 24" and is a light lilac color. A staple of the post-Civil War theatre were numerous traveling companies presenting dramatic versions of Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin. Known as "Tom Shows" they often featured spectacular effects, notably the death of Little Eva (with the child sometimes hoisted bodily Heavenward with ropes and pulleys) and the pursuit of Eliza and her baby across the ice of the frozen Ohio River. This broadside was probably intended for display outside a theatre; it features a scene of Eva and Uncle Tom outside his cabin, with Eva's luxurious home in the background. Poster reads: COMING SOON! PARSONS & POOL'S ORIGINAL UNCLE TOM'S CABIN AND TENNESSEE JUBILEE SINGERS  THE ONLY COMPANY on the road to-day presenting the old-time manuscript version of UNCLE TOM'S CABIN. WAIT FOR US, WATCH FOR US As we will positively appear in your city soon. Watch for Day & Date. -- Printed by Whatcheer Print, Providence, R.I. Research indicates the date of production to be around 1880. The ink coverage is good. The condition is very good, considering it's around 125 years old and on such delicate, fragile stock.

-- Vintage mid-19th Century sheet music (1860s) with an illustrated Black Americana lithograph cover entitled, "The Carolina Song" (Dulcimer's Song) by Stephen Glover (b.1813 -d.1870) from the 1856 play "Dred" (adapted for the stage by H.J. Conway based on the 1856 novel "Dred: A Tale of the Great Dismal Swamp" by Harriet Beecher Stowe, the author of Uncle Tom's Cabin.

"Four Negro Heads", Peter Paul Rubens

  18. Original 1883 antique engraving (Edmond Ramus) of the "Four Negro Heads" by Flemish painter, Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640). Handmade laid paper, watermarked -- Arches. This folio etching with crisp lines and strong plate impression was produced by J. Rouam and Remington and Co. in Paris and London, jointly. Unlike most antique prints of this vintage, the Rouam and Remington etchings were produced in extremely low numbers and are incredibly hard to find, especially in such pristine condition. (View at top of page).
<-- This particular image was chosen to be on the verso side of a 500 franc note with King Leopold II on the front, issued by the National Bank of Belgium (1952-1967). --
order postcard of "Four Negro Heads"


-- A beautiful original charcoal drawing of Peter Paul Rubens, the famous Flemish painter. The picture is signed "Frederic Le???, 1834. It measure approximately 8x10 and is drawn on paper with age marks typical for that time period.
-- Also in this collection is an original painting (Study of Four Negro Heads) from the 19th Century Belgium painter, Maurice Goffin, who was born in Luik (Angleurin) in 1845 and died relatively unknown in Seraing in 1898 at the age of 53. He was the son of parents who were active in the metal industry. He was the painter of mainly portraits, figures and still life. In this painting Goffin is trying to mimic the "Four Negro Heads" painting by Peter Paul Rubens -->
-- A stunning and rare (circa 1870s) bronze relief of Ruben's painting (1.5" x 10.75"), with stand,”Study of Four Negro Heads. Weighs four pounds.

Painting by M. Goffin (1845-1895)

   19. Many original 16mm films: The Emancipation Proclamation -- Ethiopia: Ancient Land, Strategic Land -- Negro Slavery -- Sound of Sunshine, Sound of Rain (social propaganda film) -- Jesse Owens: 1936 Olympics -- William: From Georgia To Harlem -- Slavery and Slave Resistance -- Martin Luther King, Jr.: An Amazing Grace -- Martin Luther King, Jr.: The Assassin Years -- Afro American Music, It's Heritage, Cabin in the Sky -- and more...Many of these films are lost and will never be seen again. We are transferring these films to DVD so that we can play film clips in our galleries. Some transferred to DVD already:
-- (1)  Palmour Street (1957) - This film stands apart from 99% of the educational film productions involving African-Americans in the mid-1950s because it portrays an African-American family that lives a normal life and the film itself lacks the typical racist narration and stereotypical scenarios. The gist of this movie is that good parenting practices make for healthier children. This is a great film for African-American studies. Length: 23 minutes
-- (2) We Work Again (1930s) - This WPA (Works Project Administration) film tries to convey that the New Deal is beneficial for African-Americans. Length: 11 minutes
-- (3)  Farmer Henry Browne (1942) - This is a nice portrait of an African-American farmer in Georgia during WWII. Like other Americans assisting in the war effort domestically, Henry Browne uses productivity and hard work to support American troops. Length: 11 minutes
-- (4) Negro Colleges In Wartime (1944) - This short film about the training regiment of African American soldiers in WWII will strike up constructive educational dialogue about the racist treatment black American soldiers received during the WWII. Great video of African American military culture and history abounds in this film from the 40s, including footage of the historic Muskagee airmen.  Watching the segregated military practices of this time period shows why the civil rights leaders, both during the Korean War and the Vietnam War, were very concerned with the mass enlistments of young African Americans. Length: 9 minutes
-- (5) With No One to Help Us (1967) - A group of welfare mothers in Newark form together to fight the overpricing of grocery items to welfare recipients. This is tremendously important documentary and a vital teaching tool for African American studies. Amazing historical documentation of the projects of Newark around the 1960s. Length: 19 minutes
-- (6) The Plantation System In Southern Life (1950) - See how the centuries of African American slavery has affected Southern culture and life in the South. A rare and invaluable piece of black history. Length: 10 minutes
-- (7) Teddy (1971) - A social seminar film that picks the brain of Teddy, a politically conscious teenage African American male.  Teddy talks about police brutality, war, the Watts community of L.A., The Black Panthers and "The System."  Nice unknown movie to show during black history month or to kick start any black history or political discussion. Length: 17 minutes
-- (8) Jesse Owens: 1936 Olympics - Jesse goes back to the Olympic Stadium in Berlin, recounting his accomplishments in August, 1936.
-- (9) The Birth of a Nation -
This landmark film from silent director D.W. Griffith was the first movie blockbuster. However, it also reveals a horribly racist version of American history. The film was based on Thomas Dixon Jr.'s anti-black, 1905 bigoted play, The Clansman. The first part of the film chronicles the Civil War as experienced through the eyes of two families; the Stonemans from the North, and the Camerons of the South. Lifelong friends, they become divided by the Mason-Dixon line, with tragic results. Large-scale battle sequences and meticulous historical details culminate with a staged re-creation of Lincoln's assassination. The second half of the film chronicles the Reconstruction, as Congressman Austin Stoneman (Ralph Lewis) puts evil Silas Lynch (George Siegmann) in charge of the liberated slaves at the Cameron hometown of Piedmont. Armed with the right to vote, the freed slaves cause all sorts of trouble until Ben Cameron (Henry B. Walthall) founds the Ku Klux Klan and restores order and "decency" to the troubled land. While The Birth of a Nation was a major step forward in the history of filmmaking, it must be noted that the film supports a racist worldview. But there is no denying that it remains a groundbreaking achievement, setting a high watermark for film as an art form. Premiered at Clune's Auditorium in Los Angeles, February 8, 1915, under the title The Clansman. Premiered in New York City at the Liberty Theater on March 3, 1915, as The Birth of a Nation. The film toured the rest of the country as a road show attraction. In 1906, the same Liberty Theater had housed a run of Thomas Dixon's stage play, The Clansman, which was one of the sources for the film. At the New York premiere, Dixon stated that he would have "allowed none but the son of a Confederate soldier to direct the film version of The Clansman." (New York Times, 3/4/1915). The Birth of a Nation was added to the Library of Congress National Film Registry in 1992. The film originally ran 13,058 feet on 12 reels. At 16 frames per second, it ran approximately 185 minutes.
This landmark cinematic achievement features the first use of now-standard techniques like cross-cutting and deep focus, as well as the unprecedented long shot of the Lincoln assassination and a color sequence at the end. The Birth of a Nation was originally silent with a musical score. In 1930, the film was reissued with sound effects and synchronized music adapted from Joseph Carl Breil's original score, but at a much shorter length--108 minutes. Current prints run between 108 and 185 minutes, sometimes due to deleted footage, sometimes due to incorrect projection speeds. At some theaters, ticket prices cost up to $2 per seat, a record figure at the time. The Birth of a Nation was also reportedly the first film to utilize ushers. The film reportedly made $20 million dollars at the box office. Because the film's rights were simply sold outright in some states, accurate figures are difficult to obtain, and the film may have actually grossed $50 to $100 million. Director D.W. Griffith shot this film without a script or even written notes, saying that he had visualized the entire movie in his mind. One scene deleted from the end of the film professes to depict "Lincoln's Solution," in which African-Americans are shipped back to Africa, while Abraham Lincoln and Jesus Christ look approvingly on. From the moment the film premiered, the NAACP organized mass demonstrations against The Birth of a Nation; not only did black people object to its racial stereotypes, but they feared that its glorification of the Klan would lead to increased violence against African-Americans. In fact, the Klan used The Birth of a Nation to recruit new members, and its ranks supposedly swelled after screenings of the film. To his credit, Griffith later (by 1921) released a shortened, re-edited version of the film without references to the KKK.
-- Vintage brochure entitled, "D.W. Griffith Presents The Birth Of A Nation. An Historical Drama in Two Acts, Founded upon Thomas Dixon's story The Clansman." It goes on to state "There will be an intermission of eight minutes between Act I and Act II." The play is presented at Conn's Theatre, Concord, New Hampshire, September 16, 17, 18 (no year).
-- First Edition copy of "The Clansman", by Thomas Dixon. Published by Grossett and Dunlap in 1905.
-- (10) The Birth of a Race - A group of independent black filmmakers released director Emmett J. Scott's The Birth of a Race in 1919, filmed as a response to Griffith's film (Birth of a Nation), with a more positive image of African-Americans, but it was largely ignored. Filmed in Florida, New York, and Chicago, it cost $500,000, nearly five times The Birth of a Nation's budget, and was at least partially funded by the sale of stock. Birth of a Race was panned by Variety, who stated that it was "replete with historical inaccuracies, gross exaggerations, and bromidic appeals to patriotism," noting that the film was "full of rape, murder, and suicide." The film was directed by John W. Noble and written by Noble and Rudolph de Cordoba. It starred John Reinhardt, Jane Grey, George Le Guerre, Ben Hendricks, Gertrude Braun, and Mary Kennevan. The Birth of a Race was envisioned as an "answer" to D.W. Griffith's racist and inflammatory film, The Birth of a Nation. Unfortunately, due to cost overruns, mismanagement and the strings that came attached with white money, the film failed to achieve its original goals. The result was a film that was hardly about African-Americans at all, but about the struggle of white immigrants in this country. It was a failed attempt to counteract the damage that The Birth of a Nation caused to the image of the African-American. Even with its many shortcomings from both a technical as well as artistic standpoint, The Birth of a Race at least demonstrated that motion pictures were indeed a medium to be reckoned with that has an enormous capability to influence a large number of people. Prolific black filmmaker Oscar Micheaux's first film, the feature-length The Homesteader (1919), and Within Our Gates (1919) more effectively countered the message of Griffith's film.
-- (11) History of the Negro in America -- Two B/W 20-minute films: 1619-1860 and 1870-Today.
-- (12) Cabin in the Sky --
Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington and his orchestra! Movie stars Lena Horne and Ethel Water were in the movie.
-- (
13) 1971 Pearl Bailey Show Vignettes. Guest Stars: Sid & Marty Kroffet's Puppets. Special Guest Star: Ethel Waters sings "His Eye Is On The Sparrow", "I'll Be There" (Duet with Pearl). Pearl sings: "Hello Dolly", "Walking My Baby Back Home", "Am I Blue", "Birth Of The Blues", "Bill Bailey", This Is All I Ask" and more...B&W. 50 minutes.

   20. Museum quality portrait of John Brown, the famous abolitionist who fought to end slavery prior to the outbreak of the civil war. The reverse of the painting has the information "The Abolitioner, John Brown, born 1800 died 1859". The garland branch motif, at the bottom of the painting, was often used in artwork of the mid 1800s. We are still researching the identity of the painter.

  Here's what a John Brown author/researcher, Dr. John DeCaro, wrote about this painting:

 "As a biographer and scholar of Brown I can assure you that there is no possibility that Brown sat for this painting. Brown was a very progressive man and in the 1840s and 1850s, he periodically sat for daguerreotype portraits--the early photograph.  He never sat for a painted portrait. Numerous paintings have been made of Brown, some of them very well done based on daguerreotype portraits, others inspired by those images. This painting was apparently a rendering by someone who never saw Brown...the hair and beard are stylized. It may have been done in tribute to him by an admirer (perhaps a black artist?)...." This painting is oil on wood board, measures 12" x 10" unframed and 16" x 13" in its period frame. This is unusual, rare subject matter. >>>>

John Brown

-- Seventeen genuine issues of Harpers Weekly, illustration and content rich about John Brown.
-- Four vintage engravings of T. Hovenden's "John Brown on His Way to Execution".
-- Genuine eyewitness account of John Brown's battle at Harper's Ferry as seen by one of his prisoners, John Daingerfield (1885).
-- First Edition (1929) of Benet's, John Brown's Body.
-- Late 1800s sheet music, John Brown's Body"

   21. Many international Slave-related hand written manuscripts from colonial Peru, Bolivia, Argentina and other parts of South America, Puerto (Porto) Rico and Cuba...most written in Old Spanish -- Dates: 1553, 1567(3 documents), 1597, 1604, 1608, 1609 (2 documents), 1610, 1612, 1640, 1641, 1672, 1675, 1682, 1688, 1689 (2 documents), 1690, 1706, 1768, 1772, 1774, 1775, 1782, 1785, 1789, 1798, 1799, 1803, 1806, 1811, 1814, 1821, 1822, 1823, 1825, 1831, 1836 (2 documents), 1837, 1839, 1840, 1844, 1845, 1852, 1858, 1860 & more...The slaves, all from Africa, were sold in Buenos Aires. This was their first port and generally the original place of sale for slaves being brought into South America.  From there they were sold and then transported to other places in South America.  Usually, when being taken to Peru their first port was Valparaiso near Santiago where slaves were dropped off, and the rest were transported onto Peru, into the port of Callao, which is in Lima.  These slaves were usually given a 60 day "heart" guarantee, and any heart malady after the warranty period fell onto the buyer.
            Here are some examples:

-- 1553, Extremely rare, signed Peru (Spanish) colonial handwritten, fascinating manuscript...written in Old Spanish. Merchant, Diego de Ribera, citizen of Arequipa city (south Andes of Peru), sells to Cristobal de Rueda: "...a Black slave, from Mozambique, named Cristobal, which has a healthy of title and had of good war, and surely with choral drop and bad of earth and that is not evasive, neither thief nor fugitive.. neither it has other faults nor diseases(!) by price of 300 Pesos from assayed and marked silver..." The file is dated June 6, 1553. It is interesting to analyze the term: "had of good war", surely a justification of slave traders with respect to the storing of slaves in Africa, avoiding conflicts with certain tribes. "Gota Coral" is the ancient term for epilepsy, because one thought that a great drop of blood struck the heart. Exceptional document for its age!! One leaf = 2 pages, signed and complete! No moth, humidity or foxing. 
-- 1609, Original complete signed Spanish Colony in Peru. It details the giving of a Black slave, Fransisco (valued at 680 silver pesos) as a part of the payment of debt to a Catholic convent. The debtor is the Knight of the Calatrava Order of Don Juan de Abalos Riberia.
-- 1689, The sale of a Black slave woman, Maria Criolla (19 years of age) for 500 silver pesos. The seller is Don Jose DeAvila and the buyer is "Hacienda de Vilca Huaura".
-- 1706 signed contract for the sale of a Black woman in Cochabama, Bolivia.
-- 1798 signed contract for the sale of Segundo, a young Black man in Bolivia.
-- 1836, The sale of a Black slave woman, Jacoba, 15 years old (daughter of another slave woman named Jacoba) for 200 silver pesos. The seller is Don Manuel Salazar and the buyer is Don Mariano Hermenegildo.

Buenos Aires Slave Sale (Argentina), 1768


Chinese Slave in Cuba, 1859

<-- An impossible to find 1859 Cuban Slave Contract defining the purchase of Chinese slave, Chang Chew. Pictured to the left, this document is written in Chinese on the rear. The front of the contract is written in Spanish.
-- 1858 List of Captured Runaway Slaves in Cuba --
There existed many groups of slaves throughout Latin America called "Cimarrones" (Wild Ones). This document details those who had fled their masters and had been captured by the police. The term Cimarron means "runaway slave" and refers mainly to African slaves who had run away from their Spanish masters. Many slave uprisings were sponsored by these groups across the Caribbean and Latin America.
-- 1860 list of 372 Chinese Laborers (Slaves?) who have disembarked from the ship, Loyola. The ages are between 30-35 years of age. This may have been because the Cubans were running out of younger laborers.
-- 1803 signed slave contract from Peru, under Spanish Kingdom Colony domination. The document details the sale of a male slave who had happened to come from Valparaiso, Chile.
-- 1768 document detailing the sale of Theresa (24 years of age), a slave being sold in Buenos Aires, Argentina.


-- 1619 rare document (4 pages) detailing the sale of Manuel, a slave being sold in Bolivia. It also gives a glimpse into colonial life in that part of South America.
-- 1597 intriguing document about colonial life in Bolivia, including the business between Alvaro Martin and a priest in a monastery.
-- 14-page Peruvian register from the San Bartolome Hospital (1811 -- only for Black slaves, pictured below)
-- Cuban Ship (Matano') Document -- leaving Havana for Barcelona, Spain on October 3, 1822.
-- Cuban Ship Document -- leaving Habanna (sic) for Barcelona, Spain on April 5, 1820.
-- 1875 Cuba Slave identification document with Havana police.
-- 1856 Cuban document explaining what has been done to avoid the landing of a ship transporting slaves from Africa to Cuba.  The letter is directed to the gentlemen governing the brigadier politico and the military head of the jurisdiction -- Jatibonico, a municipality in the Sancti Spiritus Province of Cuba.


-- 1840 ship registration (Portugal) with one slave aboard.  The ship "Palas" arrived at Montevideo from Rio de Janeiro, and later left for Pernambuco. It carried 1 slave (police report).


 22. Stunning Silver Civil War locket (1860s), containing two tin-type pictures of African American women (looks like mother and daughter), worn by an African American soldier during the Civil War. The locket opens on a hinge to reveal the other tin-type picture. Picture to the left.

-- Many circulars from the War Department addressing the issues surrounding the Freedmen's Bureau, refugees and abandoned lands.
-- Hand written letter stating the difficulty of determining the ages of Free Negroes (Sept.17, 1851).
-- Hand written letter by Civil War soldier wanting a position in Wild's African Brigade (January 17, 1864).

-- "Colored Soldier Regiments" in the Civil War -- "No officer in this regiment now doubts that the key to the successful prosecution of this war lies in the unlimited employment of black troops. Their superiority lies simply in the fact that they know the country, while white troops do not, and, moreover, that they have peculiarities of temperament, position, and motive which belong to them alone. Instead of leaving their homes and families to fight they are fighting for their homes and families, and they show the resolution and sagacity which a personal purpose gives. It would have been madness to attempt, with the bravest white troops what I have successfully accomplished with the black ones. Everything, even to the piloting of the vessels and the selection of the proper points for cannonading, was done by my own soldiers." -- Excerpt from February 1, 1863 report by Colonel T. W. Higginson, commander of the First Regiment South Carolina Volunteers (Union) after the January 23 - February 1, 1863 Expedition from Beaufort South Carolina, up the Saint Mary's River in Georgia and Florida.

  23. A First Edition 55-page article entitled, "The Rosetta Stone" in Archaeologia: Miscellaneous Tracts Relating to Antiquity, Volume XVI, published by The Society of Antiquaries of London. 1812. Some of the first published articles about the Rosetta Stone. This is historic in light of the fact that the code to Hieroglyphics wasn't cracked until 1822 by Jean Champollion.
-- One and a half pages of the Gentleman's Magazine (August, 1802) stating, "...a treble inscription brought up from  Rosetta, in Egypt, where it was dug up by the French, and, with other antique fragments, made by capitulation the property of the British nation. Copies had been previously taken of it by its former possessors, who, with their accustomed vivacity, have attempted to illustrate it..." (This was written a full 20 years before the code to Hieroglyphics was cracked by Champollion.)

"Viewing the Rosetta Stone", 1874
London Illustrated engraving
(3 original images owned)

-- An original "Elephant-size" folio Victorian print (circa 1895) of the Rosetta Stone. Measures 21x14" on heavyweight paper.
-- An original "Elephant-size" folio Victorian print (circa 1895) of a gentleman viewing the Rosetta Stone in the British Museum. Measures 21x14" on heavyweight paper.
-- An 1815 engraving of the British Museum (its original, smaller site).
-- Superb
Georgian (during the reign of King William IV 1830-1837) hardback complete two-volume First Edition set entitled “Egyptian Antiquities,” by The British Museum, with nearly 100 fine engravings and other illustrations. They were published by Charles Knight, of London, in MDCCCXXXII (1832 – Volume I) and MDCCCXXXVI (1836 – Volume II). The code to hieroglyphics had been cracked in 1822 by Jean Champollion, just ten years before the publication of the first volume! Excellent information about the Rosetta Stone and other ancient Egyptian artifacts in these books. Extremely rare addition to this collection...

 -- Extremely Rare Museum Quality Full Face Casting of the Rosetta Stone -- In the 1970’s, the British Museum made a mold of the full face of the Rosetta Stone, and cast a small number of 1st generation casts. When I acquired this I was told maybe only 12-15 had been made, and that I had acquired the last one. (It had been stored in the basement of the British Museum.)  It is an actual casting in black resin with the characters in white, made from a direct mold of the Stone's face. The bottom right of the face contains the imprint of the British Museum, thus authenticating it. I have been informed by the British Museum’s Department of Conservation, that the Museum itself makes no more production runs. The British Museum Company, who is in charge of museum sales, informed us as follows: “Unfortunately we do not have any records of how many Rosetta Stone casts were produced. However, (we) estimate that for a short period of time, it would have been two or three a year at the very most.” The replica (one of 12-15 copies in existence) is pictured to the right --> Do you want to own a full-size, 3-D replica of the original Rosetta Stone? Click here -->

"Capture of Rosetta"

-- A genuine issue of the January 7th, 1799 Connecticut Courant, detailing the "Landing of Buonaparte's army in Egypt" and its progress in Cairo. Fascinating content.

-- Authentic issue of the Salem Gazette (Dec. 7, 1798), containing a literal translation of General Napoleon Buonaparte's proclamation to the Arabs in Lower Egypt. Intriguing content.

<-- July 14, 1801 issue of the New England Palladium describing the capture of Rosetta, Egypt by British troops. The report comes from Major General J. H. Hutchinson. "It is with great pleasure that I am to inform you of the success of a corps of Turks and British under the command of Col. Spencer. They were ordered from hence about ten days ago, for the purpose of forcing the enemy from the town and castle of Rosetta, which commands the navigation of the Nile...

One of just 12-15 full-size
facsimiles of the famed Rosetta Stone ever manufactured by
the British Museum. Very rare.

The "Rosetta Stone" of replicas


...We are now masters of the western branch of that river, and of course have opened a communication with the Delta, from which we shall derive the necessary supplies, as the French have scarcely any troops there, and none capable of making a serious resistance. The enemy had about 800 men at Rosetta when they were attacked. They made but a feeble effort to sustain themselves, and retired to the right bank of the Nile, leaving a few men and prisoners. They left a garrison at the fort, against which our batteries opened on the 16th infantry and it surrendered on the 19th infantry. The condition of the same as were granted to the castle of the Aboukir..."
-- In August 1799, just over a year after Napoleon launched his invasion of Egypt at Alexandria, a great discovery was made. Under the leadership of Lt. Pierre Bouchard, French soldiers were building up their defenses around the area of Fort St. Julian, near the northern city of Rosetta, when a soldier or engineer found in the ruins an ancient stone. With its cryptic inscriptions, it was immediately recognized as an object of great importance. It was sent to Cairo, where it was housed in the Institute d’Egypte. Members of Napoleon’s special civilian corps dispersed around the country were requested to go there at once. The rare map to the right is of the mouth of the Nile, picturing Fort Julian, now known as Fort Rashid -->

Map of Rosetta region at the mouth of the Nile, with Fort Julian on the West Bank of the river.

-- Description de l'Egypte, Rosetta Environs. Folio Sheet size: 55cm x 72cm. It has the Napoleonic "Sphinx" cartouche it the upper corner of the sheet. Not a reproduction or re-strike of any kind. This print was purchased nearly 40 years ago in Cairo. From: Description de l'Egypte ou recueil des observations et des recherches qui ont ete faites en Egypte pendant l'Expedition de l'Armee francaise. Dediee au Roi. France: Commission des sciences et arts d'Egypte. The completed work fills twenty-three volumes and contains engravings depicting 3,000 individual images. Description de L'Egypte documents many aspects of Egypt's history and culture and has sections devoted to antiquities, the modern state, and natural history. An atlas supplements the text. Description de L'Egypte was intended for an academic audience, and many copies of the first edition were distributed directly to institutions. However, it was clear even before the original production was complete that the title had a much broader appeal. The descriptions of Egyptian antiquities and religious monuments satisfied a curiosity about ancient cultures, religion, and mythology that had been sparked by the Romantic movement.

-- A Bit of History About the Rosetta Stone: Some scientists accompanied Napoleon's French campaign in Egypt (1798-1801). After Napoleon Bonaparte founded the Institut de l'Egypte in Cairo in 1798 some 50 became members of it. On July 15th, 1799, just over a year after Napoleon launched his invasion of Egypt at Alexandria, a great discovery was made. Under the command of Lt. Pierre-François Bouchard (1772-1832), French soldiers were building up their defenses around the area of Fort St. Julian, near the northern city of Rosetta, when a soldier or engineer found in the ruins an ancient stone. With its cryptic inscriptions, Bouchard immediately understood the importance of the stone and showed it to General


Abdallah Jacques de Menou. It was immediately recognized as an object of great importance. It was sent to Cairo, where it was housed in the Institute d’Egypte. Members of Napoleon’s special civilian corps dispersed around the country were requested to go there at once. In 1801 the French had to surrender. A dispute arose about the results of the scientists - the French wishing to keep them, while the British considered them forfeit, in the name of King George III. In September 1801 English brevet Colonel Tomkyns Hilgrove Turner, who had fought at Aboukir Bay and Alexandria, went to visit Menou to procure the stone. Meanwhile the French scientist Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, writing to the English diplomat William Richard Hamilton threatened to burn all their discoveries, ominously referring to the burned Library of Alexandria. Turner cited the sixteenth article of the "Treaty of Alexandria". The British capitulated, and they insisted only on the delivery of the monuments. The French tried to hide the Stone in a boat despite the clauses of the capitulation, but failed. The French were allowed to take the imprints they had made previously, when embarking in Alexandria. General Menou handed it over grudgingly. A squad of artillerymen seized the stone without resistance. As they carted the magnificent ancient treasure through Alexandria, French soldiers and civilians collected on the streets and sputtered insults at them. In the spasmodic voyage from Egypt to England, many of the Egyptian antiquities were damaged. Because of the importance of the Rosetta Stone, however Colonel Turner personally accompanied this precious cargo on its journey aboard a frigate. The Rosetta Stone left Egypt from Alexandria and sailed into the English Channel in February 1802. At Deptford the stone was placed in a small boat and taken through customs. It was lodged at the quarters of the Society of Antiquaries so experts could examine it before being dispatched to its permanent station of public exhibition in the British Museum in London, England (since 1802).

Frederick Douglass

 24. Scarce First Edition of "My Bondage And My Freedom", Part I -- Life As A Slave, Part II -- Life As A Freeman, by Frederick Douglass, with an introduction by Dr. James M'Cune Smith. New York and Auburn: Miller, Orton & Mulligan, 1855. Illustrated with steel engraved prints, and Frontispiece Engraving of Frederick Douglass by J. C. Buttre from a Daguerreotype, with autograph signature of Douglas (facsimile). Autograph manuscript inscription on prefatory page of W.S. ? Davis, Westford, Otsego (?) County, N.Y. This book came from an estate in Rochester, NY, Upstate New York, where Douglas lived for many years. See #37 (below) for more information about Frederick's visit to Scotland. -- order postcard of Frederick Douglass

-- St. Johnsbury Calcdonian newspaper, St. Johnsbury, VT, Mar.23, 1877. The column headlines -- "A 'Nigger' In a High Place" to bring the news that Frederick Douglass has been confirmed as U.S. Marshall". An historic event for an African American man over 125 years ago -- but shame on the editor's for using such a derogatory headline. Here is the article:
-- "Probably the most conservative politician will now admit that the world moves. Frederick Douglass, the eloquent and learned colored man, has been confirmed by the Senate to the best office in the District of Columbia -- four Democratic Senators voting for his confirmation, as well as all the Republicans, and two prominent Democrats of Washington -- Alexander and Christie -- becoming Douglass's bondmen. When such men as Ben. Hill vote for confirmation of a Black" Republican to office in the old slave District of Columbia, it is time for reformers to thank God and take courage. The world does move."

-- Deed of Trust for James L. Barbour and Frank D. Johns, signed by Frederick Douglass, July 7, 1881. Douglass served as the Recorder of Deeds for the Washington, DC Government (1881-1886). This Deed was signed during his first months on the job. (gift from Mark E. Mitchell).

-- New York Times, Apr.29, 1842 -- A 1 1/2" front page column headed THE ANTI-SLAVERY CONVENTION, Cincinnati, Ohio.  Frederick Douglass chosen to be one of the Vice-Presidents. 

-- A First Edition copy of William Lloyd Garrison: The Story of His Life Told by His Children (1894). Below is a handwritten letter from Robert Adams making the argument that certain materials needed for preservation and also it is sure that these newspapers would be utilized as research for the accuracy of this book.
William Lloyd Garrison (December 13, 1805 – May 24, 1879) was a prominent American abolitionist, journalist, and social reformer. He is best known as the editor of the radical abolitionist newspaper, The Liberator, and as one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society, he promoted "immediate emancipation" of slaves in the United States. Garrison was also a prominent voice for the women's suffrage movement.

-- An excellent hand written letter (dated April 5, 1887) from Robert Adams, a dear friend of Frederick Douglass and also a well-known conductor on the Underground Railroad. He was also a bookseller, stationer and dealer in artist's materials from Fall River, Massachusetts, regarding the collection of books that this woman has and that he, Adams is buying these books for Francis Jackson Garrison (as a 16-year old he corresponded with Sergeant-Major James Trotter of the Mass. 55th during the Civil War), the son of William Lloyd Garrison and his autobiographer. A good strong letter with the argument that these books were important during the era and he is particularly looking for copies of "The Liberator" as well as other anti-slavery materials. The letter has some folds and a corner has been cut, affecting last word on bottom of the page. Folds present and one 1/2inch tear at the fold into one top of letter reverse, otherwise a good strong letter. Rare item regarding the collection of materials on anti-slavery which William Lloyd Garrison was in the center of during a great part of his life.

Robert Adams
Bookseller, Stationer
Dealer in Artist's Materials

Fall River, Mass.   April 5, 1887

Dear Madam: I learn through Mr. Durleigh (?) that you may have a number of volumes of The Liberator. I am collecting for Mr. Francis Jackson Garrison, the youngest son of William Lloyd Garrison, who is gathering together all he can, to arrange in files to be placed in Public Libraries for preservation and for future reference. They are worthy of a conspicuous place, as they give an important history of those eventful years, which can be obtained from no other source. Should you be willing to dispose of them for that purpose, please inform me as soon as convenient, as he is about finishing his work on them. If you know of any person in your vicinity who has any copies of The Liberator, please inform me if you please.

Yours respectfully, Robert Adams

Mrs. Adams sends her regards to you. Have you any of the "National Antislavery Standard" or of the "New York Tribune" to dispose of? RA

   BACKGROUND: By 1851, after the Fugitive Slave law had come into effect, a very large percentage of the negro colony in New Bedford left by the underground route for Canada. This exodus was through Fall River where forwarding stations had been actively in operation since 1830. Fall River became an important "way station" although it was only one in a great number of "railroad systems" through which escape was possible. Fall River was ideally adapted for this purpose because it was not on any direct line and slaves who were able to escape by sea from southern ports to New Bedford and towns on the cape were "doubled back" to Fall River as a means of concealment. From Fall River they were shipped to Canada by way of Valley Falls and Worcester . Those who assisted in their escape were called "conductors." As early as 1840, Arnold Buffum was prominent in this railroad system. The Buffums, the Chaces, the Robesons and many others, mostly Quakers, had much to do with the Fall River station. Robert Adams, a Quaker sympathizer, was the best known conductor of the underground trains in Fall River, though neither he nor Mrs. Adams were members of the Quaker meeting.

INTERESTING NOTE: There was a touching letter (below) was written by Frederick Douglass to Robert Adams, a well-known “conductor” on the Underground Railroad in Fall River, Massachusetts, on the occasion of Douglass’s 80th birthday (March 23, 1888). Adams was a trusted friend of Frederick Douglass. Here is what he wrote to Adams, reflecting upon their first meeting in 1841 in Fall River:

Do you know that yours was the first eyes that beamed kindly upon me in Fall River seven and forty years ago? My dear old friend, I shall never forget that look of sympathy you gave me. I was then only three years from slavery. I had not fully realized the possibility that a white man could recognize a colored man as a man and a brother but I saw such recognition in your face and have ever since, in sunshine and storm, felt safe in your friendship.” 

-- Rare newspaper article written by Horace Greeley about Frederick Douglass addressing the students of Western Reserve College, on the occasion of the annual commencement. New-York Tribune (Monday, July 31, 1854). Read the entire article here. His speech is quite controversial, not only for 1854, but also for now.

-- Three copies of the extremely rare Douglass' Monthly newspaper:  1. October 1861 – Complete. 16 pages. Minor repairs to back page affecting five or six words. Good condition.   2. November 1861 – Complete. 16 pages. Light purple stain to side margin and part of one column (5” by 3”) affecting 4 pages (2 sheets) but still readable. Good condition.   3. December 1861 -- Incomplete. 12 pages. Lacks cover and back sheet (4 pages). Good condition.

     On the rear page of Douglass's newspaper is a "Haytian Advertismement", written by Nicholas Fabre Geffrard (President of Haiti 1859-1867):      Hayti (sic) will soon gain her ancient splendor. This marvellous soil that our fathers blessed by God, conquered for us, will soon yield to us the wealth now hidden in its bosom. Let our black and yellow brethren, scattered through the Antilles and North and South America hasten to co-operate with us in restoring the glory of the Republic. Hayti is the common country of the black race. Our ancestors, in taking possession of it, were careful to announce in the Constitution that they published, that all the descendants of Africans and of the inhabitants of the West Indies belong by right to the Haytian family. The idea was grand and generous.

Douglass' Monthly


     Listen, then all ye negroes and mulattoes who, in the vast Continent of America, suffer from the prejudices of caste. The Republic calls you; she invites you to bring to her your arms and your minds. The regenerating work that she undertakes interests all colored people and their descendants, no matter what their origins or where their place of birth.   Hayti, regaining her former position, retaking her ancient sceptre as Queen of the Antilles, will be a formal denial, most eloquent and peremptory, against those detractors of our race who contest our desire and ability to attain a high degree of civilization."     -- Geffrard (1806–79), president of Haiti (1859–67). He took part (1843) in the revolt against Jean Pierre Boyer and led the insurrection that overthrew Faustin Élie Soulouque in 1859. Although he tried to reform the government, he was continually harassed by counterrevolutions and could accomplish little. He was exiled in 1867.)

-- Rare First Edition copy of "There Once Was a Slave" (New York: J. Messner, 1947) by Shirley Graham Du Bois, 2nd wife of NAACP mentor, W.E.B. DuBois. Book is about Frederick Douglass.

-- Hard-to-find First Edition copy of Paul Robeson, Citizen Of The World, By Shirley Graham Du Bois Copyright 1946. Hard back with no dust jacket. In good—very good condition. Tight binding. 2nd face page has a color photo of Robeson attached. Back face page has news clipping, and small black/white newspaper photo attached. . Has 264 pages with 16 pages black/white photos.

   JOSEPH STURGE (A heroic abolitionist):
-- An extremely hard to find copy of the British Emancipator (January 10th, 1840 -- LAST EDITION!), the Anti-Slavery Newspaper (Dec. 27, 1837-Jan. 10, 1840). "After having formally announced the Emancipator of December 25th as our last, we shall no doubt surprise our readers not a little by the appearance of another number. We beg permission to explain..." The newspaper was founded by
Joseph Sturge (1793-1859). He was a member of the Religious Society of Friends, and refused, in his business as a corn factor, to deal in grain used in the manufacture of spirits. He went to Birmingham in 1822, where he became and alderman in 1835. He was an active member of the Anti-Slavery Society, Central Negro Emancipation Committee and British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society. Sturge made a tour in the West Indies, publishing on his return an account of slavery as he there saw it in The West Indies in 1837 (London, 1837).  After the abolition of slavery in 1833, Sturge was one of the main instigators of a campaign of agitation against apprenticeship in the West Indies. The Central Negro Emancipation Committee was something he founded in 1837. Lord Brougham, the most prominent champion of anti-apprenticeship, acknowledged Sturge's central role in rousing British anti-slavery opinion in a speech to the House of Lords. In 1839, Sturge and others from the anti-apprenticeship campaign came together to found the British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society, which survives until today as Anti-Slavery International. The new organization turned its attention to emancipating slaves outside Great Britain's borders. In 1841 Sturge traveled in the United States with the poet John Greenleaf Whittier to examine the slavery question there.

-- Folded letter (June 10th, 1841) addressed at front from Sturge and signed by Joseph Sturge to Governor Pennington, State of New Jersey -- Inside reads--- To The Governor of New Jersey Respected Friends I herewith forward thee a copy of a publication issued recently in England relative to American Slavery. The kind and candid tone of thy letter to Thomas Clarkson , so honorably contrasting with those of some of the Chief Magistrates of the other States , induces me to hope that thou will on all suitable occasions exert thy personal influence and the prerogatives of thy station to promote the great cause of Universal Liberty. Thy friend Joseph Sturge, Philadelphia June 10th 1841.
BACKGROUND: Note the date and recipient of the letter.
In 1841 Sturge traveled throughout the United States with the poet J. G. Whittier, to observe the condition of the slaves there. On his return he published A Visit to the United States in 1841 (published 1842). He traveled everywhere to meetings, lectures, and churches, urging international cooperation toward gaining immediate slave emancipation.

        Joseph Sturge

Sturge went straight to slave-dealers and slaveholders and presented them with anti-slavery arguments based on political and economic expedience, such as Harriet Martineau had used. He assailed newspaper editors and political leaders with the same arguments (Sturge 1842). The wellspring of his own anti-slavery activism was nevertheless moral and religious. His foundational convictions he expressed in a letter addressed to all 'Friends of Immediate Emancipation in the United States.' He urged unity among all who regard 'slave-holding and slave-trading as a heinous sin in the sight of God,' as well as a cessation of 'sectional jealousy and national hostility.' He also urged 'public reprobation' against slaveholders. Finally, he argued that 'there is no reasonable hope of abolishing the slave-trade; but, by the abolition of slavery' to be undertaken by 'moral, religious, and pacific' means. Throughout his American journey he persisted doggedly in his efforts to move public feeling, even in the face of pro-slavery churches and a hostile pro-slavery federal government. He pressed the free states to gain control of the federal government and to end the advantages slaveholders got from their 'investiture with political rights, in proportion to the amount of their slave property' (1842). He excoriated the 'leading United States denominations' for their 'monstrous assertion that slavery is a Christian institution resting on scriptural basis,' an assertion he documented with written church statements. Sturge worked tirelessly to organize popular action, even after seeing mass economic sanctions and boycotts fail. But he continued to trust the impact of altered individual feelings and ideologies.

-- Autograph letter (June 24, 1845) signed ‘Joseph Sturge.’ Letter was written from Birmingham, addressed to an unknown ‘Esteemed Friend’, about parliamentary debates, with references to a speech by Sir Robert Peel (on the sugar question) and to the British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society. 3 pp. 6 x 4 inches, in good condition.
Interesting Note: Sophia Sturge, his beloved sister, died in June 1845. This sad fact may have been on his mind as he wrote. Among other things, Sophia Sturge had trudged to around 3,000 households in Britain personally, asking them not to eat slave-grown sugar. She was quite a warrior against the evils of slavery. Whittier wrote a poem about Sophia after her death. Sophia was the president of the British Complete Suffrage Association. She was the colleague, counselor, and ever-ready helpmate of her brother in all his vast designs of beneficence. The Birmingham Pilot says of her: "Never, perhaps, were the active and passive virtues of the human character more harmoniously and beautifully blended than in this excellent woman." Here is Whittier's poem to Joseph about Sophia Sturge:

Thine is a grief, the depth of which another
May never know;
Yet, o'er the waters, O my stricken brother!
To thee I go.

I lean my heart unto thee, sadly folding
Thy hand in mine;
With even the weakness of my soul upholding
The strength of thine.

I never knew, like thee, the dear departed;
I stood not by
When, in calm trust, the pure and tranquil-hearted
Lay down to die.

And on thy ears my words of weak condoling
Must vainly fall
The funeral bell which in thy heart is tolling,
Sounds over all!

I will not mock thee with the poor world's common
And heartless phrase,
Nor wrong the memory of a sainted woman
With idle praise.

With silence only as their benediction,
God's angels come
Where, in the shadow of a great affliction,
The soul sits dumb!

Yet, would I say what thy own heart approveth
Our Father's will,
Calling to Him the dear one whom He loveth,
Is mercy still.

Not upon thee or thine the solemn angel
Hath evil wrought
Her funeral anthem is a glad evangel,--
The good die not!

God calls our loved ones, but we lose not wholly
What He hath given;
They live on earth, in thought and deed, as truly
As in His heaven.

And she is with thee; in thy path of trial
She walketh yet;
Still with the baptism of thy self-denial
Her locks are wet.

Up, then, my brother! Lo, the fields of harvest
Lie white in view
She lives and loves thee, and the God thou servest
To both is true.

Thrust in thy sickle! England's toilworn peasants
Thy call abide;
And she thou mourn'st, a pure and holy presence,
Shall glean beside!              -- By John G. Whittier

BACKGROUND: Joseph Sturge (1793–1859); Quaker philanthropist, son-in-law of James Cropper. Some of the earliest British and American anti-slavery speakers and writers were members of the Religious Society of Friends, or Quakers. The life and actions of Joseph Sturge exemplified in the nineteenth century the Quaker tradition of anti-slavery that George Fox, founder of the Friends, initiated in the seventeenth. Joseph Sturge was born in Gloucestershire in 1793 and died in Birmingham on May 1, 1859, after a life of radical political action supporting pacifism, working class rights, and the universal emancipation of slaves. Sturge succeeded admirably in pursuing radical goals through measured and diplomatic organizational behavior. He effectively directed popular protest toward achieving concrete steps in the long process of ending class oppression, whether it took the form of worldwide chattel slavery or wage slavery in Britain.  He was one of the founders of the agency committee of the Anti-Slavery Society. When the Emancipation Act of 1834 was finally passed in Parliament, Sturge refused to let the 'apprenticeship' provision rest. ('Apprenticeship' was the widely criticized intermediate stage on the route to emancipation chosen by the British government.) Boldly he set out in person, with Thomas Harvey, to investigate apprenticeship on the spot. Between Nov 1836 and April 1837 he and Harvey traveled through the West Indies gathering evidence to demonstrate the flaws of the apprenticeship system. Everywhere they went they observed apprenticeship in action and talked directly to apprentices, overseers, stipendiary magistrates, and proprietors. In Antigua, where the local legislature bypassed apprenticeship, Sturge and Harvey found that freed people had achieved a social and economic condition far superior to that of Jamaica, where apprenticeship prolonged the wretchedness of slavery. Their book, The West Indies in 1837 (1838), exposed for a broad public the cruelty and injustice of apprenticeship. While he was in Jamaica, Sturge helped found the Jamaican free village of Sturgetown. He brought to London a Jamaican apprentice, James Williams, who described in his own words the brutality of his apprentice life. Williams's story touched his audiences and stirred up agitation against apprenticeship. Sturge used what we now call field research in order to demonstrate his hypothesis about apprenticeship. This research strategy, combined with his unflagging protest activity, succeeded in shortening the period of apprenticeship by a full two years. Fifteen months after Sturge¹s West Indian trip, nearly 800,000 men and women held in apprenticeship became fully free. He founded the British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society in 1839, and organized international anti-slavery conventions in 1840 and 1843. In 1841 he traveled through the United States with the poet J. G. Whittier, to observe the condition of the slaves there. On his return published A Visit to the United States in 1841 (1842). Sturge served as secretary of the Birmingham Anti-Slavery Society. A statue was erected in Birmingham in his honor after he died. The British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society (BFASS), founded in 1839 by Joseph Sturge, still survives today as Anti-Slavery International. Sturge worked tirelessly to organize popular action, even after seeing mass economic sanctions and boycotts fail. But he continued to trust the impact of altered individual feelings and ideologies. He put faith in the moral force of religion. In 1942 Joseph wrote, "Light and darkness, truth and falsehood, are not more in opposition than Christianity and slavery."

-- Joseph Sturge autograph -- 2 7/8 x 5 Page is hand signed in black ink pen.

-- Rare March 25, 1865 edition of a family journal, "The Leisure Hour." In this journal is a great article about Joseph Sturge, along with an excellent etching of Sturge. In this article the last meeting with Thomas Clarkson before he died. Here is what was written:

   LAST PUBLICLY SPOKEN WORDS OF THOMAS CLARKSON: Slavery everywhere was attacked after it had fallen in the British dominions. Joseph Sturge, from the beginning of the new endeavors to the end of his life, was one of the main elements of strength and support. Readers will remember the celebrated conference held at the Freemason's Hall, June 1840, when and where were gathered between 500 and 600 delegates, from all parts of the world, we may say, besides all that was great and good in every philanthropic undertaking. It was a noble assembly. There Thomas Clarkson appeared for the last time in public. We give our readers a condensed account of the scene from the pen of the painter Haydon, who was present as an artist to find materials for one of the greatest pictures.
   "In a few minutes," he says, "an unaffected man got up and informed the meeting that Thomas Clarkson would attend shortly: he begged no tumultuous applause might greet his entrance, as his infirmities were great, and he was too nervous to bear any such expressions for feelings." This was Joseph Sturge. In a few minutes the aged Clarkson came in, gray and bent, leaning on Joseph Sturge for support, and approached with feeble and tottering steps, the middle of the convention. Immediately behind him were his daughter-in-law, the widow of his son, and his little grandson. The old man first appealed to the meeting for a few moments of silent prayer; and says Haydon, "for a minute there was the most intense silence I have ever felt." He spoke a few feeble words: every word was uttered from his heart.
   After urging the members to persevere to the last, til slavery was extinct, lifting his arm and pointing to heaven, his face quivering in emotion, he ended by saying, "May the Supreme Ruler of all human events, at whose disposal are not only the hearts, but the intellects of men -- may He, in His abundant mercy, guide your counsels and give His blessing upon your labours." There was a moment's pause; and then, without an interchange of thoughts or look, the whole of the vast meeting, men and women, said in a tone of subdued and deep feeling, "Amen and amen!"

25. Over 400 Golden Legacy (Black History) comics in mint condition (most still in original packaging) -- known as "Illustrated History Magazines". Between 1966 and 1976 Bertram Fitzgerald (publisher) produced 16 volumes of Golden Legacy Comics. He left a legacy of his own, comprising the most successful series of Afrocentric comics to date.

The Golden Legacy comics are thoroughly professional in their writing, art, and production values, and full of enough historical surprises to interest adult readers presented in a package accessible to younger readers.

Comics in this Collection tell the stories of Toussaint L'Ouverture (pictured), Harriet Tubman, Crispus Attucks, Benjamin Banneker, Matthew Henson, Alexander Dumas, Frederick Douglass, Robert Smalls, J. Cinque (Amistad Mutiny), Martin Luther King, Ancient African Kingdoms, Alexander Pushkin, Black Cowboys, Louis Lattimer, Marcus Garvey, George Washington Carver, White, Marshall, and Wilkins.





 26. 1820s "T Porter" slave button (from Antigua, British West Indies), sewn onto the outer clothing of slaves -- used to identify the owner of the slave.
-- The Chillicothe Recorder (OH, dated Aug 23, 1815). Inside page headline with report on live slaves being thrown overboard from a slave ship, while shackled together. I have heard anecdotal stories of this but this is the 1st reference I can find to it actually having been done!
-- 1818 edition of Niles Weekly discussing the "Treatment of Slavery in Maryland".
-- Vintage engraving of a "Slave Felucca on the Coast of Africa", 1852.


27. Signed letters, photos and other sports memorabilia (Julius Erving, Buck Leonard,  Jack Johnson, Satchel Paige, Harlem Globetrotters (many annual programs, LPs, and other Globetrotter items), Joe Frazier,


Bob "Showboat" Hall

Ali, Magic Johnson, Michael Jordan, George Foreman, Negro Baseball League, Sugar Ray Leonard and more). Boxing gloves signed by Muhammad Ali, George Foreman, Sugar Ray Leonard, Joe Frazier, Mike Tyson and others. Many Harlem Globetrotter programs 1948-2005. Click here to review the other Harlem Globetrotter items. Pictured is the 1949 (23rd Season) Harlem Globetrotter's program -->

  <--Harlem Globetrotter ('46-'74) Bob "Showboat" Hall's (signed) travel bag. This is the actual bag he used in his world travels with the Harlem Globetrotters...

-- Rare original AFTRA Engagement Contract dated January 28, 1972, for Pearl Bailey's appearance on the Harlem Globetrotter's Celebrity Special (NBC) at The Forum in LA -- signed by Pearl, w/ her Social Security # (Pearl was paid $1000 for her appearance).

--  Absolutely rare original signed check for $5002.30 from Samuel Goldwyn Productions made out to Pearl Bailey, dated September 6, 1958. Pearl Bailey was working on Porgy and Bess, which was released June 4th, 1959 (Otto Preminger, Director). This check was all or part of her payment for playing Maria in Porgy and Bess. The check is signed on the back twice -- Pearl Bailey and Pearl Bellson (Pearl was married to jazz drummer Louie Bellson, who revitalized the Duke Ellington Orchestra in the 1950s). The Porgy and Bess film was marginally successful when released, winning an Oscar, Golden Globe, and Grammy Award. Ira Gershwin and the Gershwin estate were unhappy with the film, however, and rescinded the rights to the film in the 1970s. As a result, the film has never been on video or DVD here in America, and few public screenings have been permitted, albeit begrudgingly. It is believed that the original negative is in dire need of a restoration. This collection has a DVD copy of the entire film, obtained from another country.

--  Dubose Heyward: PORGY. Published in 1934 by The Modern Library, NY. Stated First Modern Library Edition. Hard cover, no dj, 196 pages, Illustrated Chapter headings. DuBose Heyward (August 31, 1885 – June 16, 1940) is best-known as the author of the 1924 novel Porgy, which became the foundation of George Gershwin's opera Porgy and Bess. Langston Hughes called Heyward "one who saw, "with his white eyes, wonderful, poetic qualities in the inhabitants of Catfish Row that makes them come alive." Biographer James M. Hutchisson characterizes Porgy as "the first major southern novel to portray blacks without condescension" and states that the libretto to Porgy and Bess was largely Heyward's work. Book is in good condition.

--  Rare 1959 vintage poster (16" x 23") of the film (Belgium), Porgy and Bess. -- starring Sidney Poitier, Dorothy Dandridge, Sammy Davis, Jr., Pearl Bailey and others.

--  A vintage First Edition hardback illustrated motion picture movie book titled: The Samuel Goldwyn Motion Picture Productions of Porgy and Bess, copyright 1959...the year the movie was released.

-- Souvenir program of George Gershwin's "Porgy and Bess", Produced by Cheryl Crawford ca. 1943. Directed by Robert Ross, Starring Todd Duncan, Anne Brown, Georgette Harvey et al. Cover art by Al Hirschfeld, 9" x 12", 15 pages, includes 10 b/w photos. Clean, flat and still tightly bound in EXCELLENT condition.

  28. A three-volume 1803 English edition (quite rare) of "Travels in Upper and Lower Egypt During the Campaigns of General Bonaparte in That Country", written and illustrated by Vivant Denon, published by T.N. Longman & O. Rees (London). In the spring of 1797, with a direct assault against Britain out of the question, Napoleon Bonaparte suggested threatening Britain's rich commerce with India by invading Egypt. A unique feature of the expedition, which set sail on 19 May 1798, was the large number and high caliber of the attached civilians, among them Baron Dominique Vivant Denon (1747-1825). Denon was one of the founders of the Louvre Museum, and was responsible for saving many works of art and monuments of French culture from destruction during the French Revolution. Denon was entrusted by Napoleon to assemble a team of artists, archeologists, linguists and scholars to study the antiquities of Egypt for the first time since Antiquity. In addition to assisting in the formulation of practical measures for the rule of Egypt, the 167 savants accompanied the army to every corner of the country. Protected by the French troops, Denon was able to explore the country extensively. This book contains many etchings of Egypt, including the famous etching of the Sphinx of Giza shown at the top of this web page. -- order postcard of Sphinx of Giza

Rare 3-Volume Set by Vivant Denon, 1803


   In the south, he reached Assouan; from Keneh he went to Kosseir. Their studies of the great monuments of ancient Egypt paved the way for the science of Egyptology. It was during this expedition that the Rosetta Stone was discovered, which ultimately enabled people to decipher and translate ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics. Denon's book was the first important fruit of the French expedition to Egypt. This is an early English translation of the work (apparently the first English edition was printed a year earlier), and contains a wealth of beautiful fold-out plates and maps, including contemporary scenes from Denon's travels, plans of ruins, engravings of the monuments and reproductions of some of the art in the ruins and temples.  Contemporary half leather binding with marbled boards and edges. 392, 312, 366pp. Illustrated with 57 engraved plates and maps. 8vo (standard sized book). CONDITION: Good to Very Good. All volumes: Rubbing and edge wear to boards and spine. Hinges cracked. Front board of Volume 1 loose but not yet detached. Split to centre of spine of Volume 2, binding still okay. Missing 5 plates, but has 2 uncalled for. Some sunning to page. Varying foxing to pages and plates, some plate just at edges, others have some spots to plates themselves. A few plates have tape repairs to reverse. Scattered dirt spots to pages. In general a tidy set, all text pages present and text clear and readable, foxing to margins of text pages only.

-- First Edition (American) book by Gaston Maspero, "The Dawn of Civilization / Egypt and Chaldea", 1894 (400 images)
-- First Edition (London) book by Joseph Pollard, "The Land of the Monuments: Notes of Egyptian Travel", 1896
-- March, 1873 Harper's Weekly article by Rev. William Hayes Ward, "Our Debt to Cadmus: Hieroglyphics"
-- Original British Museum booklet, "History of the Rosetta Stone", printed by Harrison and Sons, London), 1939
-- "Ancient History: Egyptian..." by Charles Rollin, 1854
-- "The Hebrew Bible, With Respect to Egypt" (incl. maps), by Robert, Lord Bishop of Clogher. Printed for J Warcus, London, 1760 (3rd Edition, Corrected), 493 pages, bound with full original full calf leather.
-- "The Story of the Nations: Ancient Egypt", by George Rawlinson, First Edition, 1887, with many illustrations.
-- French edition of "L' Archeologie Egyptienne" by Gaston Maspero, 1887. Rare, with many illustrations.
-- Leeds, England newspaper article erroneously announcing the death of Napoleon in Egypt. Intriguing.
-- The Life of Napoleon Bonaparte by J.G. Lockhart (1886), 496 pages with 9 tipped-in illustrations and many wood engravings. London: Bickers & Sons, Leicester Square. Faversham School Prize full calf binding with marbled endpapers and edges. Prize bookplate on pastedown. Portrait frontispiece slight foxing. Text, slight foxing. Slight foxing in prelims and last few pages, otherwise clean. Plates, lovely and luminous.
-- Hand written letter (Nov. 5th, 1805) by the former Chief Ordonnateur (Director) of the French Army during the Napoleonic Egyptian Campaign.
-- "Egyptian Antiquities", produced by the British Museum for the Library of Entertaining Knowledge, and published by Knight London in 1832, this is a splendid 2 volume, 12mo size work. The two volumes have full page and other engravings and have around 800 pages in total. Really detailed work on Egyptian monuments, Rosetta Stone, buildings, sculptures, tombs, papyrus, etc., etc. In the original half calf boards.
-- Rare Original French Text Book, copyright 1900 -- "L'Expedition de Bonaparte en Egypte", Written by L.A. Thiers, with introduction by C. Fabregou, published by D.C. Heath & Company. Most of the book is written in French, with some English translation in the back. 100 pages. It is an old college text book from Franklin & Marshall College, Lancaster, PA.
-- L’Egypte, by old French traveler/diplomat/student of Egypt, Gabriel Charmes, published by CALMAN LEVY, Rue Auber, Paris, France, 1891, Chapters include, in part -- Mariette Pacha, Les Etudes Egyptologiques en Egypte, Les Pyramides D’Ounas et de Meydoum, Dier-El-Bahari, L’Institut D’Archeologie Orientale Du Caire, and more. Very antique volume of 396 rich crispy style pages in its original Calmann Levy, ‘L’EGYPTE’ soft card covers as published.

Jean Champollion in Egypt

-- Lettre Ecrites D'Egypte et de Nubie en 1828 et 1829, by Champollionn le Jeune (Letters Written in Egypt and Nubia in 1828 and 1829 by Francois Champollion) with all illustrations intact. This very, very rare First Edition by the translator of Egyptian Hieroglyphics is seldom seen on the open market. Most copies are in large University or Public library rare book collections. This work is an important insight into the early work of one of the Fathers of Egyptology. These are his own reflections and opinions regarding the monuments of Egypt. It is important to remember that Champollion only ever made one trip to Egypt as he died soon after his return. A great loss to the science of Egyptology.
-- Jean-Francois Champollion, a 10 year old child saw some of the Egyptian artifacts and enquired about the strange pictures (Hieroglyphs) where he was told that no one yet understands what these pictures means. Since that time Champollion committed himself to decipher the Hieroglyphs. By the age of 16 he became a professor mastering 10 languages at the same time. Champollion then compares the two cartouches of PTOLEMY & CLEOPATRA found on the Rosetta stone which contains similar characters. He continued deciphering more cartouches and texts from the temple of El Karnak. It took Champollion 24 years until he published his work in a book " Precis du systeme Hieroglyphique ". Sadly Champollion died by a stroke on 1832 when he was 41 years old.

-- Two extremely rare First Edition French volumes, "Complete Summary of Archaeology" by Jean Champollion-Figeac (Published in Paris, 1825 and 1826, just a few years after he cracked the code to hieroglyphics in 1822). Divided into volumes. First: Monuments of architecture, Sculpture and Painting, including/understanding constructions of any kind, the statues, low-reliefs, figurines, tombs, furnace bridges, vases painted, mosaic, etc...with an introduction historical and finished by a vocabulary divides into volumes. Second: Containing the treaties on the engraved stones, the inscriptions, the medals, the utensils crowned and common, movable, weapons, etc, followed by the biographies of the most famous antique dealers, archéologieque bibliography and of a vocabulary.

-- Vintage framed image of Dr. Thomas Young.
Background: Dr. Thomas Young is the man who undertook the task had perhaps the keenest scientific imagination and the most versatile profundity of knowledge of his generation — one is tempted to say, of any generation. For he was none other than the extraordinary Dr. Thomas Young, the demonstrator of the vibratory nature of light. Young had his attention called to the Rosetta Stone by accident, and his usual rapacity for knowledge at once led him to speculate as to the possible aid this tri-lingual inscription might give in the solution of Egyptian problems. Resolving at once to attempt the solution himself, he set to work to learn Coptic, which was rightly believed to represent the nearest existing approach to the ancient Egyptian language. His amazing facility in the acquisition of languages stood him in such good stead that within a year of his first efforts he had mastered Coptic and assured himself that the ancient Egyptian language was really similar to it, and had even made a tentative attempt at the translation of the Egyptian scroll. His results were only tentative, to be sure. Yet they constituted the very beginnings of our knowledge regarding the meaning of hieroglyphics. Just how far they carried has been a subject of ardent controversy ever since.  Not that there is any doubt about the specific facts; what is questioned is the exact importance of these facts. For it is undeniable that Young did not complete and perfect the discovery, and, as always in such matters, there is opportunity for difference of opinion as to the share of credit due to each of the workers who entered into the discovery.

Dr. Thomas Young's specific discoveries were these: (1). that many of the pictures of the hieroglyphics stand for the names of  the  objects actually delineated; (2). that other pictures are sometimes only symbolic; (3). that plural numbers are represented by repetition; (4). that numerals are  represented by dashes; (5). that hieroglyphics may read either from the right or from the left, but always from the direction in which the animals and human figures face; (6). that proper names are surrounded by a graven oval ring, making what, he called a cartouche; (7). that the cartouches of the preserved portion of the Rosetta stone stand for the name of Ptolemy alone ; (8). that the presence of a female figure  after such cartouches,  in other inscriptions, always denotes the female sex; (9). that within the cartouches the hieroglyphic symbols have a positively phonetic value, either alphabetic or syllabic ; and (10).  that several different characters may have the same phonetic value.

Just what these phonetic values are, Dr. Young pointed out in the case of fourteen characters, representing nine sounds, six of which are accepted to-day as correctly representing the letters to which he ascribed them, and the three others as being correct regarding their essential or consonantal element.  It is  clear,  therefore,  that  he  was  on  the right  track thus far, and on the very verge of complete discovery. But, unfortunately, he failed to take the next step, which would have been to realize that the same phonetic values given the alphabetic characters within the cartouches, were often ascribed to them also when used in the general text of an inscription; in other  words, that the use of an alphabet was not confined to proper names.  This was the great secret which Young missed, but which his French successor, Jean Francois Champollion, working on the foundation that Young had laid, was enabled to ferret out. Young's initial studies of the Rosetta stone were made in 1814 his later publications bore date of 1819.  Champollion's first announcement of results came in 1822; his second and more important one in  1824.  By this time, through study of the cartouches of other inscriptions, he had made out almost the complete alphabet, and the “Riddle of the Sphinx " was practically solved.  He proved that the Egyptians had developed a relatively complete alphabet (mostly neglecting the vowels, as early Semitic alphabets did also) centuries before the Phoenicians were heard of in history.

-- Hardbound Volume IV of  American Quarterly Review (September and December, 1828). This 546 page book contains reviews of historical, scientific, and travel literature published by Carey, Lea & Carey, Chesnut Street, Philadelphia; 546 pages. Twenty-six of those pages are dedicated to reviewing Jean Champollion's May/June 1827 article published in the Bulletin Universal entitled, "Apercu des Resultats Historiques de la decouverte de l'alphabete Hieroglyphique Egyptienne" par M. Champollion le Jeune.

 -- Magnificent extremely rare plate/print (one of 511 plates), expertly backed with linen, of Thutmose III from the monumental 1843 work of Jean Champollion, the first to decipher Egyptian hieroglyphs (20" x 27").
-- Rare First Edition copy of "L'Univers Pittoresque. Egypte Ancienne" by M. Champollion-Figeac (Jean Champollion), Paris, Firmin Didot, 1839. It contains 92 illustrations and an antique folding map of Egypt. First few pages have some foxing, with the rest in excellent condition. 500 pp., & 92 plates,1/2 maroon morocco with 5 raised bands & leather label, marbled bds. & endpapers.-- Very scarce First Edition, Egyptian Antiquities in the British Museum, 1862. Details 250 exhibits. Published by Smith, 196 pages. Excellent condition. In fact, it appears to be unread. Over 6 pages, with three diagrams, dedicated to the Rosetta Stone.
-- Intriguing early 1900s glass slide of the Rosetta Stone by Moore, Bond &Co. (Chicago).

-- Two Copper engravings (22"x9" -- Battle Plan for Alexandria and Map of Nile) titled, "Plan of the Action of the 21st. of March Fought near ALEXANDRIA, by the French under General Menou, and the English under Sir Ralph Abercrombie" and also "A Map of the Western Branch of the Nile from the Latest Authorities". Issued in 1803 as part of Robert Thomas Wilson's "History of the British Expedition to Egypt To which is Subjoined a Sketch of the Present State of That Country and its Means of Defence".

-- A fine 1719 original, copperplate engraved views of the Pyramids and of the Sphinx, Giza, Egypt, with engraved cursive commentary as borders: Description des Piramides d'Egypte . . . Avec une Description tres Curieuse du Sphinx, from Chatelain, Henri Abraham, Atlas Historique..., Volume 6, Amsterdam: . First edition. Excellent condition, heavy paper, crisp dark impression; uncolored as always (any color seen in these images/maps is applied by modern hands.) Dimensions: 17 1/2" x 21 1/4" (overall);

-- This collection has 82 extremely rare original plates/prints ( from "Description de l'Égypte" from the Napoleonic Egyptian Campaign, circa 1820. These official plates/prints came from a huge lot sold in an auction in 2001, Paris -- the seller was the French Government -- from the cellars of the French Government Publications Office. Average plate/print size is 29 inches x 22 inches. Some of the plates in this collection are 56 inches long! --  (Description de l'Égypte was the result of the collaboration of prominent scholars, several famous European scientists, cartographers, topographers, and more than 160 artists and technicians. They accompanied Napoleon's army during Napoleon's expedition to Egypt in 1798. Their goal was to methodically collect information in areas as widely varied as architecture, geography, botany and the humanities. Description de l'Égypte was published in 23 volumes from 1809 to 1828 and includes over 900 plates.)   Regions depicted/represented by the official plates in this collection are: Thebes, Karnak, El Kab, Medynet-Abou, Hypogees, Elethyia, Heptanomide, Beny-Hasan, Tentyris, Memnonium, Byban El Molouk, Latopolis, Ile de Philae, Edfou, Louqsor and much, much more...

Description de l'Égypte: Official plates/prints previously owned by the French Government.

--  Very rare L'expédition d'Égypte, 1798-1801, par Clément de Lajonquière. Five large volumes in wraps, total of about 3400 pages! (1902, 2nd edition). Among the campaigns of the revolution, consigning Egypt is both one of the most popular and less well known. Thus began the monumental work of Clement Draveurs (Clément de La Jonquière). Published (about 100 years after the Napoleonic military campaign) from 1899 to 1907 under the auspices of the History Section of the État de l'Armée, Paris, he tells one of the most extraordinary adventures of the revolutionary period. Many testimonies, more or less reliable contemporaries; also numerous texts on the science of "oriental dream." The work of Georges Rigault on the last leg of the expedition to Egypt and those of Pierre de La Grèverie on Regiment Dromadaires round off the work of a master in the final volume.
Vol. I: 673 p., Vol. II: 632 p., Vol. III: 720 p., Vol. IV: 688 p., Vol. V: 692 p. A complete set. With numerous foldout maps. Vol. I: A rebinding copy. Rear cover missing, backstrip missing parts and frayed. Shaken. Internally excellent: text leaves clean and neat. Vol. II: Missing front wrap cover, else in excellent condition – tight and clean. Vol. III: a Very Good volume. Tight and clean with some wear to covers. Vol. IV: A rebinding volume – shaken, backstrip cracked. Covers off and frayed. Internally clean and neat. Vol. V: A Very Good volume. Tight and clean. Covers with some wear and leaves somewhat yellowed. A remarkable complete set.
BACKGROUND: (translated from French) In 1797, after the victory early, and unexpected, Napoleon in Italy, England remains the main enemy. One can oppose it either by attempting an invasion, either by intervening on its links with India. The conquest by Bonaparte of Ionian Islands in August 1797 opened the way to the Orient and reanimate the idea of conquest of Egypt, which would allow the opening of the Isthmus of Suez, thus controlling of a more commercial path runs to the riches of India. As a first step, in January and February 1798, the policy of the Executive moves to the invasion. Bonaparte examines all possibilities of invasion from ports in the north, the troops are assembled, a fleet is formed, but the operation seems far too risky and it is abandoned. But we must fight against England, and incidentally get rid of a Bonaparte too. Talleyrand, confirmed his analysis by the intervention of Magallon, will therefore attempt Eastern map. The decision to intervene in Egypt was taken on March 5, 1798. On August 22, 1799, Bonaparte, after the unfortunate expedition to Syria, even Egypt, called for new targeted France.He left the expedition under the command of Kleber, which does little to maintain in Egypt. But Kleber is totally convinced of the importance of scientific work, which continues, despite the setbacks and delays of the policy. It creates Similarly, on November 19, 1799 a commission to study more particularly modern Egypt. On Nov. 22, 1799, he took the decision to consolidate all the work of scholars of the commission in a unique work, the Description of Egypt. Kleber enters into negotiations with the British and the Ottomans, to evacuate honorably and Egypt to participate in military actions in Europe. An agreement was concluded on January 23, 1800 for the return in France, but its implementation is not possible, given the internal divisions among English, the sultan of procrastination and the resumption of hostilities in Egypt. After the victory of Heliopolis Kléber on the Ottomans, March 20, 1800, there is no question of return, but the morale of the troops, such as scholars rose. Unfortunately, on June 14, 1800, when the victory of Marengo, Kléber was assassinated in Cairo. The General Menou, being the oldest in the highest rank succeeded him as head of the army. Any momentum had been able to restore Kléber members of the expedition despite the failure of the draft back, disappears with him. Until the final departure to France, scholars no longer leave little near the Cairo and Alexandria in order to be ready to leave at the first opportunity. However Menou continues the work of reorganization and modernization begun by Bonaparte and continued by Kleber. To him we owe the fact that the publication of the description will not be provided by private funds but rather by the state, so that is recognized and sanctioned the importance of the work done by scholars. After many tribulations, scholars, gathered in Alexandria, obtain permission to leave Egypt on May 13, 1801, but the English do not want to pass up, unless they abandon all material collected during the exploration and their notes and sketches. The negotiations, sometimes tragic, lasting several months and it was not until September that the first members of the committee may leave Egyptian soil, having left in the hands of English the heaviest items that they had found, including the famous Rosetta Stone.

 Clay pipes

 29. Four clay pipes (to the left) depicting people of African descent dated back to the mid 1800s, one British.

-- Bambara Elder's Pipe: To the right is a fine item, approximately 150 years old -- from the Bambara Tribe in Mali, West Africa. This is an elder's or chief's pipe, approximately 10" long and shows use and character. The bowl is metal lined and is reinforced with metal on the mouthpiece.
BACKGROUND: The Bambara speak "Bamana", which is one of the Manding languages. Bamana is widely spoken in Mali, especially in the areas of business and trade. During the 1700's, there were two Bambara kingdoms: Segu and Karta. In the 1800's, aggressive Muslim groups overthrew these kingdoms, leaving only a few anti-Muslim Bambara to oppose their occupation. This lasted forty years until the arrival of the French. Only 3% of the Bambara had become to Islam by 1912. After World War II, the number of Muslim coverts grew due to their resistance to the French and their exposure to Muslim merchants. The Bambara are 70% Muslim today.


A Bambara elder's pipe


30. 1858 Slave Life Insurance Policy Receipts from La Providencia (6 different copies, 1858-1859) and La Protectora Insurance Companies -- both in Havana, Cuba. Slavers routinely covered their slaves with life insurance policies. Consequently, they didn't care if they had to push slaves overboard or even if the slaves lived or died on the voyage. The slavers were paid regardless. This was common practice during the Slave Trade -->

-- AUTHENTIC 159-year-old copy of the "Diario de la Marina" Cuban newspaper. The most prominent HABANA newspaper of the time and right up to Castro's communist takeover. This newspaper is a total of 4 large (14"X20") pages full of information about life in Cuba and the world. It is from Tuesday July 28th, 1846. At the time newspapers were made of a high quality paper-cloth mix material that through time has not yellowed nor deteriorated as other more recent types would. Depicts 19th century slave trade in Cuba.
-- This collection also has two more issues of "Diario de la Marina" from Sept. 3rd, 1844 and Dec. 29th, 1844. Lots of information about slave ships, the sale/capture of slaves, colonial life, etc...
1840 Portugal ship certificate registration with 1 slave -- The ship "Palas" arrived at Montevideo from Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), and later left for Pernambuco. It carried 1 slave (police report included, with 7 other related documents).

Cuban Insurance Policies for Slaves


No images on this page may be used without permission
© 2010-NOW
Joel A. Freeman, Ph.D.


 Countee Cullen

 31. Countee Cullen -- poet, anthologist, novelist, translator, children's writer, and playwright, Countee Cullen is something of a mysterious figure. He was born March 30th, 1903 (died 1946), but it has been difficult for scholars to place exactly where he was born, with whom he spent the very earliest years of his childhood, and where he spent them. New York City and Baltimore have been given as birthplaces. Cullen himself, on his college transcript at New York University, lists Louisville, Kentucky, as his place of birth. A few years later, when he had achieved considerable literary fame during the era known as the New Negro or Harlem Renaissance, he was to assert that his birthplace was New York City, which he continued to claim for the rest of his life. Cullen’s second wife, Ida, and some of his closest friends, including Langston Hughes and Harold Jackman, said that Cullen was born in Louisville. As James Weldon Johnson wrote of Cullen in The Book of American Negro Poetry (rev. ed., 1931): "There is not much to say about these earlier years of Cullen--unless he himself should say it." And Cullen--revealing a temperament that was not exactly secretive but private, less a matter of modesty than a tendency toward being encoded and tactful -- never in his life said anything more clarifying.

-- Page from the December 1923 issue of Opportunity Magazine with poem, "When I Am Dead", signed by Countee Cullen (dated December 14, 1923). Countee was a mere 20 years of age at the signing of this autograph.
-- Color (First Edition, 1925) -- signed by Countee Cullen
-- Color
(First Edition, 1925) -- with original book cover (3 additional copies)
-- Ballad of the Brown Girl (First Edition, 1927)
-- Caroling Dusk: An Anthology of Verse by Negro Poets (2 copies -- First Edition, 1927)
-- Copper Sun (First Edition, 1927) -- signed by Countee Cullen
-- Copper Sun (First Edition, 1927) (3 more First Edition copies)
-- Black Christ and Other Poems (First Edition, 1927)
-- Black Christ and Other Poems (Third Edition, 1927)
-- On These I Stand (First Edition, 1947) -- along with an original advertisement card, with Countee's picture.
-- The Medea and Some Poems (First Edition, 1935)
-- An Anthology of the Best Poems of Countee Cullen (First Edition, 1947...published posthumously)

 32. World War II Unit History titled "Workin’ on those Airdromes" An Overseas Report From the 923rd Engineer Aviation Regiment including the 827th Engineer Battalion, 829th Engineer Battalion, the 847th Engineer Battalion, and the 859th Engineer Battalion is soft back 10 3./4" x 8 ¾" with 42 pages attached with staples. Front inside cover inscription to "Sally, Mother, and Mimi from Tom" written in blue ink." Includes text, black and white photos of the African American soldiers. " Two greatest accomplishments of the men of this Regiment were the construction of Eye and Debach airdromes in England….On D-Day, June 6, 1944, the first flight of Liberators took off from Debach….work performed by our men continued missions of the heavy Flying Fortresses B-17 and Liberators B-24…Displays color graphics of Aviation Engineers and IX Engineer Command patches; soldiers receiving the Bronze Star, Legion of Merit, and Good Conduct Medals; B-17s, half-tracks, etc. Photos of Joe Lewis visiting and participating in "Joe Lewis Day" including "refereeing a boxing fight for us". Lists "Battle Grounds of the 923rd Engineers Airfields constructed, improved, or maintained in England, France, Belgium, Holland, Luxembourg, and Germany". Includes photos of "General Eisenhower, General Marshall, Jimmie Byrnes, General Bradley, General Montgomery, and Russia’s Field Marshal Gregor Zhukov". Lists "In Memoriam They Died in the Service of the United States". Killed in Action KIA. Interesting addition to Black Aviation Collection.

  33. Maps of Africa: Maps of Africa were vital to European slave traders who depended upon the mapmaker's representation of the West African coast for the purposes of navigation -- Clouet (1768) -- Kitchin (1786) -- Chambers (1847) -- Guthrie (1800) -- Noveau Dictionnaire Geographique (1823)
-- Black (1849) -- Johnson & Browning (1861) -- Cundee (1809) -- Levasseur (1866) -- Rapkin (1865)
-- du Bocage (1848) -- Bonne (1780) -- Mitchell (1836, 1841, 1851) -- J. Bartholomew (1878) -- Bonne (1760)
-- Malham's Naval Gazetteer (1796) --
     Maps of Egypt: -- Clouet (1768) -- Wilkinson (1796) -- Mallet (1719) --
     Map of "Hayti and San Domingo" -- Allen (1890) -- Mendes (1871) -- Cape St. Francois (1795)
     Map of King Solomon's Route to Ophir for Gold -- Pluche's (1745) --
     Map of South America -- Dufour (1840) -- Scot (1798) -- J. Bartholomew (1876) -- Cram (1886) -- Gelattly (1845) -- Steiler (1870) -- J.H. Young (1839 and 1852) --
     Map of Scotland -- Mitchell (1847, around the time of Frederick Douglass' visit between '44-'46) --


  34. Six busts (below, 8" high) are by African American sculptor/photographer, Inge Hardison (b. 1904) from the "Negro Giants in History" collection created in 1967. Stunning likenesses. Hardison is a sculptor whose major interest is contemporary and historical portraiture. Much of Hardison’s work is emotionally involved to her heritage as a woman of African decent. She was the only woman among the six artists who formed the Black Academy of Arts and Letters. Hardison once said, “During my long life I have enjoyed using different ways to distill the essences of my experiences so as to share for the good they might do in the lives of others.” A life loyal to creativity and art speaks of the life of Inge Hardison.
-- 1945 playbill for Mansfield Theatre's production of the play, Anna Lucasta, with Inge Hardison listed as an actor -->



  Matthew Henson (1866-1955) was born on a farm in Charles County, Maryland. He was still a child when his parents Lemuel and Caroline died, and at the age of twelve he went to sea as a cabin boy on a merchant ship. He sailed around the world for the next several years, educating himself and becoming a skilled navigator. Henson met Commander Robert E. Peary in 1888 and joined him on an expedition to Nicaragua. Impressed with Henson’s seamanship, Peary recruited him as a colleague. For years they made many trips together, including Arctic voyages in which Henson traded with the Inuit and mastered their language, built sleds, and trained dog teams. In 1909, Peary mounted his eighth attempt to reach the North Pole, selecting Henson to be one of the team of six who would make the final run to the Pole. Before the goal was reached, Peary could no longer continue on foot and rode in a dog sled. Various accounts say he was ill, exhausted, or had frozen toes. In any case, he sent Henson on ahead as a scout.


  In a newspaper interview Henson said: “I was in the lead that had overshot the mark a couple of miles. We went back then and I could see that my footprints were the first at the spot.” Henson then proceeded to plant the American flag. Although Admiral Peary received many honors, Henson was largely ignored and spent most of the next thirty years working as a clerk in a federal customs house in New York. But in 1944 Congress awarded him a duplicate of the silver medal given to Peary. Presidents Truman and Eisenhower both honored him before he died. In 1912 Henson wrote the book A Negro Explorer at the North Pole about his arctic exploration. Later, in 1947 he collaborated with Bradley Robinson on his biography Dark Companion. The 1912 book, along with an abortive lecture tour, enraged Peary who had always considered Henson no more than a servant and saw the attempts at publicity as a breach of faith.
(source: Wikipedia)


  Garrett Augustus Morgan (1877-1963) was an African-American businessman and inventor whose curiosity and innovation led to the development of many useful and helpful products. A practical man of humble beginnings, Morgan devoted his life to creating things that made the lives of other people safer and more convenient. Among his inventions was an early traffic signal, that greatly improved safety on America's streets and roadways. On July 25, 1916, Morgan made national news for using a gas mask he had invented to rescue several men trapped during an explosion in an underground tunnel beneath


Lake Erie. After the rescue, Morgan's company received requests from fire departments around the country who wished to purchase the new masks. The Morgan gas mask was later refined for use by U.S. Army during World War I. In 1921, Morgan was awarded a patent for a Safety Hood and Smoke Protector. Two years later, a refined model of his early gas mask won a gold medal at the International Exposition of Sanitation and Safety, and another gold medal from the International Association of Fire Chiefs.
-- Garret Morgan's entire US patent for the first Traffic Signal (1923), which includes 2 Drawing sheets and 4 Description sheets that explain every detail of the invention. This collection owns two of the Morgan sculptures.


  Norbert Rillieux (1806 -1894) was revolutionary in the sugar industry by inventing a refining process that reduced the time, cost, and safety risk involved in producing sugar from cane and beets. As the son of a White French planter/inventor and an African American slave mother, Norbert Rillieux was born in New Orleans, Louisiana. He viewed the methods for refining sugar from beets and cane were dangerous, crude and required backbreaking labor. The methods threatened the slaves who were required to take boiling cane juice from one scalding kettle to another to produce a dark sugar.


   Rillieux designed an evaporating pan which enclosed a series of condensing coils in vacuum chambers, issued as a patent U.S. 4,879. The invention was later used by sugar manufacturer in Cuba and Mexico. Rillieux's system took much of the hand labor out of the refining process, it saved fuel because the juice boiled at lower temperatures, and the new technique produced a superior final product. The Rillieux device was patented in 1846 and was used widely on sugar plantations in Louisiana, Mexico, and the West Indies. "It was stated by Charles Brown, a chemist in the U.S. Department of Agriculture, that [Rillieux's invention of the sugar processing pan] was the greatest invention in the history of American Chemical Engineering." This collection owns two of the Rillieux sculptures.

   Frederick Jones (1892 - 1961) was one of the most prolific Black inventors ever, holding more than 60 patents in a variety of fields. Frederick Jones patented more than sixty inventions, however, he is best known for inventing an automatic refrigeration system for long-haul trucks in 1935 (a roof-mounted cooling device). Jones was the first person to invent a practical, mechanical refrigeration system for trucks and railroad cars, which eliminated the risk of food spoilage during long-distance shipping trips. The system was, in turn, adapted to a variety of other common carriers, including ships.


   Frederick Jones was issued the patent on July 12, 1940 (#2,303,857). Frederick Jones also invented a self-starting gas engine and a series of devices for movie projectors: adapting silent movie projectors for talking films, and developing box office equipment that delivered tickets and gave change.


   Lewis Howard Latimer (1843-1928) is considered one of the 10 most important Black inventors of all time not only for the sheer number of inventions created and patents secured but also for the magnitude of importance for his most famous discovery. A pioneer in the development of the electric light bulb, Lewis was the only Black member of Thomas A. Edison's research team of noted scientists. While Edison invented the incandescent bulb, it was Latimer, a member of the Edison Pioneers, and former assistant to telephone inventor Alexander Graham Bell, who developed and patented the process


for manufacturing the carbon filaments. Latimer was born in Chelsea, Massachusetts, on September 4, 1848, and reared in Boston. His father, George Latimer, a former slave, had fled to Boston from Virginia during the 1830s. At sixteen Latimer joined the Union navy as a cabin boy on the USS Massasoit. After an honorable discharge in 1865 Latimer returned to Boston. Skills he had developed in mechanical drawing landed him a position with Crosby and Gould, patent solicitors. While with the company he advance to a chief draftsman and soon began working on his own inventions. His first patent, approved on February 10, 1874, was for a "water closet for railway cars." In 1880 Latimer left Crosby and Gould to work as a draftsman for Hiram Maxim, the inventor of the machine gun and head of the United States Electric Lighting Company in Bridgeport, Connecticut. The following year Latimer and fellow inventor Joseph V. Nichols received a patent for their invention of the first incandescent light bulb with carbon filament. Prior to this breakthrough, filaments had been made from paper. Latimer later became a chief draftsman and expert witness in the Board of Patent Control of the company that would eventually be know as General Electric. Latimer continued to display his creative talents over then next several years. In 1894 he created a safety elevator, a vast improvement on existing elevators. He next received a patent for Locking Racks for Hats, Coats, and Umbrellas. The device was used in restaurants, hotels and office buildings, holding items securely and allowing owners of items to keep the from getting misplaced or accidentally taken by others. He next created a improved version of a Book Supporter, used to keep books neatly arranged on shelves. He continued to invent and teach his drafting skills until his death in 1928.

Dr. Charles Richard Drew (June 3, 1904 -- April 1, 1950) was an American physician and medical researcher. He researched in the field of blood transfusions, developing improved techniques for blood storage, and applied his expert knowledge in developing large-scale blood banks early in World War II. He protested against the practice of racial segregation in the donation of blood from donors of different races since it lacked scientific foundation. In 1943, Drew's distinction in his profession was recognized when he became the first African American surgeon to serve as an examiner on the American Board of Surgery. Drew received a fellowship from Howard University's Medical School, enabling him to


study at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons. While at Columbia University, Dr. Drew worked with the renowned Dr. Allen Whipple and with Dr. John Scudder on the problem of blood storage. The science and practice of blood transfusion had developed from early work including preserving whole blood in refrigerated storage in World War I and the practice of having hospital “blood banks” in the mid-1930s. Drew focused his own work[1] on the challenge of separating and storing blood components, particularly blood plasma, as this might extend storage periods. Dr. Drew earned his Doctor of Medical Science degree from Columbia University in 1940, with a doctoral thesis under the title Banked Blood: A Study in Blood Preservation. This collection owns two of the Drew sculptures.


   Benjamin Banneker, originally Banna Ka, or Bannakay (1731-1806) is considered to be one of the first African Americans to gain distinction in science. This beautiful sculpture was purchased from an elderly African American woman. On the back it is marked, "Property of Dorothy Thompson, #1" by the artist, S. Davis and dated '79 (13" high and 7" across). This is a one and only original clay sculpture, painted black.
BACKGROUND: At 21, Banneker saw a pocket watch that was owned by a traveling salesman named Josef Levi. He was so fascinated by it that Levi gave it to him. Banneker spent days taking it apart and reassembling it. From it Banneker then carved large-scale wooden replicas of each piece, calculating the gear assemblies himself, and used the parts to make a striking clock. The clock continued to work, striking each hour, for more than 40 years. This event changed his life, and he became a watch and clock maker.


   One customer was Joseph Ellicott, a Quaker surveyor, who needed an extremely accurate timepiece to make correct calculations of the locations of stars. Ellicott was impressed with Benjamin's work and lent him books on mathematics and astronomy. Banneker began his study of astronomy at age 58. He was able to make the calculations to predict solar and lunar eclipses and to compile an ephemeris for the Benjamin Banneker's Almanac, which an anti-slavery society published from 1792 through 1797. He became known as the Sable Astronomer. Banneker and Ellicott worked closely with Pierre L'Enfant, the architect in charge. However L'Enfant could not control his temper and was fired. He left, taking all the plans with him. But Banneker saved the day by recreating the plans from memory. In early 1791, Joseph Ellicott's Quaker brother, Andrew Ellicott, hired Banneker to assist in a survey of the boundaries of the future 100 square-mile District of Columbia, which was to contain the federal capital city (the city of Washington) in the portion of the District that was northeast of the Potomac River. Because of illness and the difficulties in helping to survey at the age of 59 an extensive area that was largely wilderness, Banneker left the boundary survey in April, 1791, and returned to his home at Ellicott Mills to work on his ephemeris.

Woodcut image of a 64 year old Banneker on 1795 edition of his Almanac

-- An article from a genuine March 21, 1791 edition of the newspaper, Dunlaps American Daily Advertiser states, ""Some time last month arrived...Mr. Andrew Ellicott a gentleman of superior astronomical abilities. He was employed by the president of the United States of America to lay a tract of land ten miles square on the Potowmac for the use of Congress...He is attended by Benjamin Banniker, an Ethiopian, whose abilities as surveyor and astronomer clearly prove that Mr. Jefferson's concluding that race of men were void of mental endowment was entirely without foundation." 


 35. Royal African Company: Official Slave Trade Act of British Parliament, 1750
(I am personally appalled by the stark, business-like manner in which the Royal African Company conducted themselves while developing the following Parliamentary Acts addressing the Slave Trade. Clearly they viewed Africans as a mere commodity, to be bought and sold like grain or wool. Inhumane. Frightening. Thankfully, the Anti-Slavery movement grew in Great Britain and by 1833 slavery was abolished. Thank God for William Wilberforce and others who risked their very lives to fight against this evil. Given the tension between the American colonies and England, it is truly amazing that the Abolitionist movement moved across the Atlantic from England to the American colonies. The Anti-Slavery movement brought people together who, at the time, would not naturally want to be in the same room. The following 60+ vintage documents provide the context and some background information written by the people who instituted the British Slave Trade.)

1660 -- Charles II chartered the Company of Royal Adventurers Trading to Africa
-- company reorganized with a monopoly in the slave trade
-- Royal Adventurers went bankrupt largely due to losses in war with Holland
-- Royal African Company, known colloquially as the Guinea company, granted royal charter with a new monopoly in the slave trade, operating on the west African Coast from the Gambia River to the Niger River. The Company built coastal forts as holding pens for slaves
-- Parliament ended the RAC monopoly and opened the slave trade to all; average number of slaves transported on English ships increased from 5,000 to 20,000+ a year (we own this document also)
-- Parliament (under King George II) created the Company of Merchants Trading to Africa to replace the Royal African Company with a policy of protected free trade -- Official Parliament document detailing the new Company-->

1752 -- Royal African Company dissolved
Later 1700s -- British exploration and settlement began

First English Slave Voyage: It was in 1562 by Sir John Hawkins, which was an encroachment on Portugal’s monopoly of Africa.  Slave trade dropped as British foreign policy in 1783, thus indicating 221 years of the trade.  The trade was sharply stimulated by the establishment of the British colonies in the Caribbean and the introduction of the sugar industry.”
Companies Involved:
  Company of Royal Adventurers (which held a monopoly), which was replaced by the Royal African Company in 1672 (after the war with the Dutch).  Note the ties to the royal family.  “The policy of monopoly…provoked determined resistance…” from merchants and planters, the latter “…demanding free trade in blacks as vociferously and with as much gusto as one hundred and fifty years later they opposed free trade in sugar”.  The monopoly was complete: purchase and control of ships, sale of Negroes, importation of plantation produce.  Opposition to other monopolies was also common: 
“In 1698 the Royal African Company lost its monopoly and the right of a free trade in slaves was recognized as a fundamental and natural right of Englishmen”. The Royal African Company, once losing its competitive advantage, received parliamentary subsidy, only to abandon the slave trade in 1731, when it abandoned slaving in favor of traffic in ivory and gold dust. Gradually its powers lessened and it became unable to maintain the complex network of …"…lands, forts, castles, slaves, military stores, and all other effects…". “In 1750 a new organization was established, called the Company of Merchants Trading to Africa”. For many years His Majesty’s Exchequer had defrayed all the Company’s expenses via Parliament, and it was finally decided to, in effect, transfer the Company to public ownership, incorporating the lands in the colony of Sierra Leone.   "The Act for Extending and Improving the Trade to Africa" -->

Slave Trade Act, cover


Official Act, 1750

  BACKGROUND:  ROYAL AFRICAN COMPANY, the British company that dealt in the Slave Trade with Africa. This company was deeply involved with the Slave Trade beginning in 1660 and continued until 1731 when it took up trade in gold dust and ivory from Africa. The Royal African Company was a slaving company set up by the Stuart family and London merchants once the former retook the English throne in the English Restoration of 1660. It was led by James, Duke of York, Charles II's brother. Originally known as the Company of Royal Adventurers Trading to Africa, it was granted a monopoly over the English slave trade, by its charter issued in 1660. With the help of the army and navy it established trading posts on the West African coast, and it was responsible for seizing any rival English ships that were transporting slaves. It collapsed in 1667 during the war with the Netherlands – the very war it started by having company Admiral Robert Holmes attacking the Dutch African trade posts in 1664 – and re-emerged in 1672, having been merged with those of the Gambia Merchants' Company into the new Royal African Company, with a royal charter to set up forts, factories, troops and to exercise martial law in West Africa, in pursuit of trade in gold, silver and slaves. In the 1680s it was transporting about 5,000 slaves per year. Many were branded with the letters 'DY', after its chief, the Duke of York, who succeeded his brother on the throne in 1685, becoming James II. Other slaves were branded with the company's initials, RAC, on their chests. Between 1672 and 1689 it transported around 90,000-100,000 slaves. Its profits made a major contribution to the increase in the financial power of those who controlled London. In 1698, it lost its monopoly. This was advantageous for merchants in Bristol, even if, like the Bristolian Edward Colston, they had already been involved in the compound. The number of slaves transported on English ships then increased dramatically. The company continued slaving until 1731, when it abandoned slaving in favor of trafficking in ivory and gold dust Charles Hayes (1678–1760), mathematician and chronologist was sub-governor of Royal African Company till 1752 when it was dissolved. Its successor was the African Company of Merchants. The Royal African Company's logo depicted an elephant and castle. From 1668 to 1722 the Royal African Company provided gold to the English Mint. Coins made with this gold bear an elephant below the bust of the king and/or queen. This gold also gave the coinage its name—the guinea.

~ Genuine British Parliamentary Acts (60+) Regarding The Slave Trade (1698 - 1873) ~

The following chronological list (1695 - 1873) of Acts of British Parliament are very scarce and historically important. Original, First Edition Acts of Parliament have long been valued and collected. These are fine examples with clear royal emblems at the head of every first page. After an Act was passed by Parliament, it was printed by the Crown printers in London. Only a few Acts were printed at one time, loosely sewn together at the inner margin. Each Act is in excellent condition, quarto size (12" by 8"), printed on fine rag paper.

No images on this page may be used without permission.  © 2005-NOW Joel A. Freeman, Ph.D.

                                  KING WILLIAM III (of Orange) (1650 - 1702) ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-- 1695 Parliamentary Act under the reign of William III and Queen Anne. Anno Regni Gulielmi III. Regis...At the Parliament begun at Westminster the two and twentieth Day of November, Anno Dom. 1695. This beautifully preserved original 1695 British Act of Parliament was published by Charles Bill & Thomas Newcomb. The act - in beautiful gothic script - is a parliamentary discussion on the trade of goods from Africa to England and its colonies, especially America. The act covers the trade of goods and the trade of slaves through the Royal African Company. (Ref: Tooley; M&B) -- 20 pages.
-- 1698 Parliamentary Act, under King William III
-- A rare Act for enlarging the time for registering of ships, pursuant to the Act for preventing frauds, and regulating abuses in the plantation trade. It provides that only ships registered in Great Britain or in her African and American colonies may land goods in Great Britain, and not on the continent. Very interesting content, 17 pages -- March 25, 1698.
-- 1698 Parliamentary Act, under King William III -- The extremely rare Act pertaining to trade with Africa and the change in duties to cover the costs of protecting the colonies. Originally the Crown paid for the upkeep of defenses: "the Forts and Castles now on the said Coast of Africa have been, and now are maintained at the sole Cost and Charge of the present Royal African Company of England". This Act required "the said Company, and all other the said Subjects Answering and Paying for the Use aforesaid, a Duty of Ten Pounds per Centum ad Valorem for the Goods and Merchandize to be Exported from England, or from any of his Majesty's Plantations or Colonies in America, to and for the Coast of Africa, between Cape Mount and the Cape of Good Hope".]

                                  QUEEN ANNE (1702 - 1727) ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-- 1712 Parliamentary Act, under Queen Anne -- An extremely rare Act of the English Parliament passed in 1711 and printed in 1712, by John Baskett (London). "An Act for making Effectual such Agreement as shall be made between the Royal African Company of England and their Creditors". Title leaf, and two pages. Interesting association item to the Slave trade conducted by this company.

                                  KING GEORGE II (1727 - 1760) ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-- 1742 Parliamentary Acts, under King George II -- An Act for "Granting to His Majesty the Sum of One Million out of the Sinking Fund, and for applying a further Sum therein mentioned, for the Service of the Year One thousand seven hundred and forty three; and for the further appropriating the Supplies granted in this Session of Parliament." This Acts details where the money is to be spent which includes:£5,000 for "form Alliances to support the House of Australia...and restoring the Balance of Power in Europe", £10,000 "towards the Maintenance of the British Forts and Settlements belonging to the Royal Africa Company of England, on the Coast of Africa"

1712 Act of Parliament
(Royal African Company

    >>>> 1743 Parliamentary Acts, under King George II -- An entire volume (over 900 pages), in immaculate condition, containing all of the Acts of Parliament in 1743. It includes an Act "For the Encouraging and Increasing of Shipping and Navigation, as to the Importation on the Account of Aliens, of Goods of the Growth or Production of the Plantations of Spain and Portugal, in England duly Navigated."
-- 1745 Parliamentary Act, under King George II
-- An Act of interesting text relating to the preservation of the trade in Sugar to the West Indies.   "The Act for the Better Encouragement of the Trade of His Majesties Sugar Colonies in America".
-- 1750 Parliamentary Act, under King George II
-- An Act establishing a new organization, the Company of Merchants Trading to Africa”.   "The Act for Extending and Improving the Trade to Africa".
-- 1751 Parliamentary Act, under King George II -- An intriguing Act for allowing further time to the Commissioners appointed by and in pursuance of an Act for exempting and improving the Slave Trade to Africa to inquire into the claims of certain creditors of the Royal African Company therein mentioned, and for the relief of David Crichton; and for the restraining of said company from disposing of such effects as are therein mentioned; and for staying all suits for money due from, or on the account of said company for the time therein mentioned (Two copies of this Act of Parliament).
 >>>> 1752 Parliamentary Act, under George II -- An entire volume (over 800 pages). Hardcover bound Law Acts Volume, total page number of 826 pages! containing all of the Acts of Parliament in 1752. Many acts in this huge volume, including an act for divesting the Royal African Company of their forts and settlements, laws for the growth of Coffee in America, admission of the vassals of the principality of Scotland, etc. Pages are clean and in Vg condition in the main with some light foxing to the latter pages.

-- 1754 Parliamentary Act, under King George II -- This Act is "For the Better Encouragement of the Trade of His Majesty's Sugar Colonies in America". This was the period of the Jacobite Rebellion led by Prince Charlie. Five pages of interesting text relating to the preservation of the sugar trade to the West Indies and the America colonies.

                                  KING GEORGE III (1760 - 1820) ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-- 1767 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- This Act documents the duty-free importation of wheat and wheat flour from Africa and rice from the North American colonies for a limited period of time. An important piece of primary historical source material. May 19th -- 6 pages.
-- 1780 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- This Act is "To allow the Trade between Ireland and the British Colonies and Plantations in America and the West Indies, and the British Settlements on the Coast of Africa, to be carried on in like manner as it is now carried on between Great Britain and the said Colonies and Settlements.
-- 1780 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- This Act is To continue the Act limiting the number of slaves per tonnage of vessel. Surgeon to be appointed. Customs Officer to search and count number of slaves to prove it does not exceed the limit -- 22 pages.
-- 1788 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- An Act to regulate the slave trade, for an initial period of one year. It sets out a series of rules to be followed by masters and surgeons of ships in order to increase the likelihood of survival of the slaves onboard their vessels. Essentially it is a series of orders and financial incentives to get slaves to their destinations alive and in better conditions than existed at the time of the Act.
-- 1788 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- A remarkable Act Establishing a company for carrying on trade in Africa, in the Peninsulas of Sierra Leone, called the Sierra Leone Company. The Company to have buildings and secure trade rights within Africa in joint dealings with African Princes. Naming about 100 persons, including William Wilberforce, as joint stockholders -- 24 pages.
Foreign trade was established through coastal African rulers who prohibited European traders from entering the interior. In 1787, British Philanthropists founded the “Province of Freedom” which later became Freetown, a British crown colony and the principal base for the suppression of the slave trade. By 1792, 1200 freed slaves from Nova Scotia joined the original settlers, the Maroons, another group of slaves, rebelled in Jamaica and traveled to Freetown in 1800.Through the efforts of such men as William Wilberforce, Thomas Clarkson and Granville Sharp, Lord Mansfield formed an administration in 1806, which was instrumental in the British Empire’s abolition of the Trans-Atlantic slave trade (1807). The British established a naval base in Freetown to patrol against illegal slave ships. A fine of GBP £100 was established for every slave found on a British ship. In 1808 Sierra Leone officially became a crown colony with the land possessions of the Sierra Leone Company (formerly known as St. George’s Bay Company) transferred to the crown. The colony was dedicated to demonstrating the principles of Christianity, civilization and commerce. The Sierra Leone Company was the organization involved in founding the first British colony in Africa in 1792 through the resettlement of Black Loyalist African Americans, mostly ex-slaves who had initially been settled in Nova Scotia after the American Revolutionary War. The Sierra Leone Company was the successor to St. George's Bay Company which had made a mostly unsuccessful attempt in 1787 to establish a free settlement for the 'Black Poor' of London. Both ventures were promoted by the anti-slavery activist, Granville Sharp who published a prospectus for the proposed company in 1790 This was entitled Free English Territory in AFRICA. The prospectus made clear its abolitionist view and stated that several respectable gentlemen had already subscribed had done so "not with a view of any present profit to themselves, but merely, through benevolence and public spirit, to promote a charitable measure, which may hereafter prove of great national importance to the Manufactories, and other Trading Interests of this Kingdom". Among the early subscribers are many friends of Sharp involved in the Clapham Sect: Henry Thornton, William Wilberforce, Rev. Thomas Clarkson, Rev. Thomas Gisborne, Samuel Whitbread
-- 1792 Parliamentary Register (House of Commons) -- Three rare issues from the 2nd Session of the 17th Parliament of Great Britain, dated March 1st, June 12th and June 30th. Various items of interest and reform including: An Inquiry into the Evils Arising from Lotteries, Wine License Bill, African Slave Trade and Slave Trade Bill. Each issue is about 60 pages, in quite good condition.
 London: printed for J. Debrett, 1792.
The British Parliament is the legislative body of Government in the United Kingdom. It is comprised of two chambers: the House of Lords, where members are appointed by past or current governments, and the House of Commons, a democratically elected chamber with elections to it held at least every 5 years. The Parliamentary Register is the record of Parliamentary deliberations in the form of bills, reports, minutes, committee proceedings, and appropriations. You will notice that in these two June issues of The Parliamentary Register a number of the speeches are about the Slave trade. In April 1791 with a closely reasoned four-hour speech, Wilberforce introduced the first parliamentary bill to abolish the Slave Trade. His first bill was easily defeated. On 2 April 1792, Wilberforce again brought a bill calling for abolition. The memorable debate that followed drew contributions from the greatest orators in the house, William Pitt and Charles James Fox, as well as from Wilberforce himself. Henry Dundas, as home secretary, proposed a compromise solution of so-called "gradual abolition" over a number of years. This was passed by 230 to 85 votes, but the compromise was little more than a clever ploy, with the intention of ensuring that total abolition would be delayed indefinitely. But from that time on Wilberforce tirelessly introduced a bill to abolish the Slave Trade every year until it was accepted on 25 March 1807.   
-- 1793 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- An Act to continue Acts regulating the carrying of Slaves in British vessels. No more than 5 slaves to three tons burden of each vessel. The upper and lower cabin and the space between decks to be allotted to the slaves. A qualified surgeon must be aboard, and to produce a record of such trips. --  17th June, 22 pages.
-- 1795 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- An Act to amend and continue Acts regulating the carrying of Slaves in British vessels. No ships to carry slaves unless specified for that purpose on leaving port. No more than 5 slaves to three tons burden of each vessel. The upper and lower cabin and the space between decks to be allotted to the slaves. A qualified surgeon must be aboard, and to produce a complete journal of such trips. Penalties for more than 2% mortality. Masters of ships prosecuted for breaking any regulations can have the ship and contents seized and sold. Master to have a copy of this Act posted in the most public place upon his vessel. -- 22nd June, 14 pages
-- 1797 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- An Act to stop slaves being sold as chattels to repay debts. This is repealing a previous Act made for the recovery of debts in His Majesty's Plantations and Colonies in America. July 19th -- 2 pages.
-- 1799 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- An Act for Regulating the Manner of carrying Slaves on British Vessels from the Coast of Africa. Printed by George Eyre and Andrew Strahan, printers for King George III. 16 pages.
-- 1802 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- An Act of interesting text. "The Act for Duties to Be Suspended on the Treaty of Amity, Commerce and navigation between Britain and America".
-- 1804 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- An Act to amend and continue, as relates to allowing British Plantation Sugar to be warehoused'. It is dated 3rd May 1804, on 2 pages of paper (only one piece has type on both sides, but both pieces are water-marked) and is printed by George Eyre and Andrew Strahan.

  In 1805 the House of Commons passed a bill that made it unlawful for any British subject to capture and transport slaves, but the measure was blocked by the House of Lords.

-- 1806 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- An Act to prohibit for two years, after the conclusion of the present session of Parliament, any ships to clear out from any Port of Great Britain for the Coast of Africa, for the purpose of taking on board Negroes, unless such ships have been previously employed in the African Trade, or contracted for, for that purpose. 21st July 1806 -- 3 pages. Eight months before the abolition of slavery by British Parliament, pressure by some Members were forcing through such Acts as this to stop the spread of slavery.

  In February 1806, Lord Grenville formed a Whig administration. Grenville and his Foreign Secretary, Charles Fox, were strong opponents of the slave trade. Fox and William Wilberforce led the campaign in the House of Commons, whereas Grenville, had the task of persuading the House of Lords to accept the measure. Greenville made a passionate speech where he argued that the trade was "contrary to the principles of justice, humanity and sound policy" and criticized fellow members for "not having abolished the trade long ago". When the vote was taken the Abolition of the Slave Trade bill was passed in the House of Lords by 41 votes to 20. In the House of Commons it was carried by 114 to 15 and it become law on 25th March, 1807. British captains who were caught continuing the trade were fined £100 for every slave found on board. However, this law did not stop the British slave trade. If slave-ships were in danger of being captured by the British navy, captains often reduced the fines they had to pay by ordering the slaves to be thrown into the sea. Some people involved in the anti-slave trade campaign such as Thomas Clarkson and Thomas Fowell Buxton, argued that the only way to end the suffering of the slaves was to make slavery illegal. However, it was not until 1833 that Parliament passed the Slavery Abolition Act.

 1807 Parliamentary Act -- “An Act for the Abolition of the Slave Trade" [25th March 1807, pp. 315-326] This particular Act is contained in A Collection of the Public General Statutes Passed in the Forty Seventh Year of the Reign of His Majesty King George the Third: Being the First Session of the Third Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.  Published in London by George Eyre and Andrew Strahan, Printers to the King's Most Excellent Majesty, 1807. Bound collection of public statutes from 1807, most notable for the act to abolish the slave trade throughout the British Empire. Other acts include import taxes, a number of acts relating to Ireland, notably the ban on importing weapons, as well as other interesting statutes including the Window tax. Half bound in leather, the boards being very worn with the upper board loose and the lower board detached and the spine chipped with loss to the ends and parts of the spine plate. Internally the pages are in pretty good condition given their age, although one of the index pages appears to have been removed at some point and the endpapers are detached. Size a shade under 12 x 8 inches. 464pp.
 1807 Parliamentary Act (2 copies of this particular Act) -- “An Act for transferring to His Majesty, certain Possessions and rights vested in the Sierra Leone Company, and for shortening the Duration of the said Company, and for preventing any dealing or trafficking in the buying or selling of Slaves within the Colony of Sierra Leone.” – 3 pages, August 8th, 1807. The British Parliament felt the need to take over the Sierra Leone company with all its land and buildings to force the issue with known slave traffickers in the area.
-- 1807 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- An Act to repeal so much of certain acts as relates to the regulations or conditions under which coffee, coca nuts, sugar and rice are allowed to be secured in warehouses, without payments of duty; and to authorize the collectors and comptrollers of the customs in His Majesty's colonies and plantations in America and the West Indies to administer certain oaths.
-- 1814 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- "An Act dated 27th May 1814 regarding the Registration of Condemned Slave Ships as British-built Ships."
-- 1815 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- "An Act dated 11th July 1815 regarding the Support of Captured Slaves During Period of Adjudication."
-- 1817 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- An Act of fascinating text (after the War of 1812). "The Act Extending to Newfoundland, Permitting Exportation of Wares from the British Islands in the West Indies to any Other, and to and from the Colonies in America".
-- 1818 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- An intriguing Act carrying an execution (agreement) between His Majesty George III and the King of Portugal for the preventing of traffic in Slaves. Gives details of agreements for Royal Navy Warships to board and seize vessels of both countries trading in slaves but gives (seemingly) exceptions to some Portuguese vessels with "issued paperwork". Mentions among others obscure West African colonies such as "Molembo" and "Cabinda", and also the "Brazils".
-- 1819 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- "An Act dated 12th July 1819 regarding an Act for more speedy trial of offences upon the Seas against the Laws of Abolition of the Slave Trade."
-- 1819 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- "An Act dated 12th July 1819 regarding an Act for making provision for the Removal of Slaves from British Colonies."

                                  KING GEORGE IV (1820 - 1830) ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-- 1821 Parliamentary Act, under King George IV -- "An Act for Abolishing the African Company, and Transferring to and Vesting in His Majesty all Forts, Possessions, and Property now belonging or held by Them." [7th May, 1821]. London: printed by George Eyre and Andrew Strahan, Printers to the King’s Most Excellent Majesty. 1821, 4 pages long.
-- 1821 Parliamentary Act, under King George IV -- "An Act dated 10th July 1821  regarding the Appropriation of Proceeds Arising from Capture of Vessels & Cargoes belonging to Spain, Portugal and the Netherlands in Prosecution of the Slave Trade."

  A new Anti-Slavery Society was formed in 1823. Members included Thomas Clarkson, Henry Brougham, William Wilberforce, Thomas Fowell Buxton, Elizabeth Heyrick, Mary Lloyd, Jane Smeal, Elizabeth Pease and Anne Knight).
-- 1824 Parliamentary Act, under King George IV -- "An Act dated 31st March 1824 regarding the More Effectual Suppression of the African Slave Trade."
-- 1827 Parliamentary Act, under King George IV -- "An Act dated 2nd July 1827 regarding the Effect the Treaty with Sweden relative to the Slave Trade."
-- 1827 Parliamentary Act, under King George IV -- "An Act dated 2nd July 1827 regarding the Execution of a Convention between Britain and Brazil on the Abolition of the Slave Trade."
-- 1828 Parliamentary Act, under King George IV -- "An Act dated 25th July 1828 regarding Amending and Consolidating the Laws relating to the Abolition of the Slave Trade."
-- 1830 Parliamentary Act, under King George IV -- "An Act dated 16th July 1830 regarding the Reduction of Rate of Bounties Payable on Seizure of Slaves."

                                  KING WILLIAM IV (1830 - 1837) ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-- 1833 Parliamentary Bill (Very Rare) -- For the Abolition of Slavery Throughout the British Colonies, For Promoting the Industry of the Manumitted Slaves, and for Compensating the Owners of Such Slaves, July 5, 1833. 25 pages. -- It was not until 1833 that Parliament passed the Slavery Abolition Act, which made slavery illegal and gave all slaves their freedom.

-- 1833 Parliamentary Act, under King George IV -- "An Act dated 28th August 1833 regarding Two Conventions with the King of France for Suppressing the Slave Trade."
-- 1834 Parliamentary Act [26th March 1834] (44 pages) -- "An Act for Punishing Mutiny and Desertion, and for the Better Payment of the Army and their Quarters.  It includes "...That all Negroes purchased by or on account of His Majesty...shall be considered as Soldiers having voluntarily enlisted..."
-- 1834 Parliamentary Act [15th August 1834] (27 pages) -- (On
August 1, 1834 all slaves in the British Empire were emancipated, but still indentured to their former owners in an apprenticeship system which was finally abolished in 1838. £20 million was paid in compensation to plantation owners in the Caribbean.) -- An Act to apply a Sum of Money out of the Consolidated Fund and the Surplus of Grants to the Service of the Year 1834, and to appropriate the Supplies granted in this Session of Parliament. This document details where the money is to be spent: "£580 for Office of Registrar of Colonial Slaves", "£16,200 for Commissioners for preventing the Slave Trade", "£5,707 to defray the Charge of the Salaries of the Inspectors and Superintendents of the regulate the Labour of Children and young Persons in the Mills and Factories...", "£12,750 to the Baptist Missionary Society, and to the Wesleyan Missionary Society, on account of Expenses incurred in the Erection of certain Chapels destroyed in the Island of Jamaica", £1,000 for the Female Orphan House, Dublin" and much more...

  The British government paid compensation to the slave owners. The amount that the plantation owners received depended on the number of slaves that they had. For example, the Bishop of Exeter's 665 slaves resulted in him receiving £12,700.
-- 1835 Parliamentary Act, under King George IV -- "An Act dated 31st  August 1835 regarding the compensation of Owners of Slaves upon Abolition."
-- 1835 Parliamentary Act, under King George IV -- "An Act dated 9th September  1835 regarding the Treaty with King of France and the King of Denmark for Suppressing the Slave Trade."
-- 1835 Parliamentary Act --  “An Act for Carrying into Effect a Treaty with the King of the French and the King of Sardinia for suppressing the Slave Trade [9th September 1835]”
-- 1835 Parliamentary Act -- “An Act for carrying into effect the Treaty with the King of the French and the King of Denmark for suppressing the Slave Trade [9th September 1835]” - 32 pages
-- 1836 Parliamentary Act, under King George IV -- "An Act dated 30th March 1836 regarding the Treaty with the Queen Regent of Spain on the Abolition of Slavery."
-- 1836 Parliamentary Act, under King George IV -- "An Act dated 7th June 1836 regarding an extension until 1840 of an Act of the Legislature of Jamaica for the Abolition of Slavery. "

                                  QUEEN VICTORIA (1837 - 1901) ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-- 1837 Parliamentary Act -- “An Act to carry into further Execution the Provision of an Act completing the full Payment of Compensation to Owners of Slaves upon the Abolition of Slavery [23d December 1837]” – 3 pages
-- 1838 Parliamentary Act -- “An Act to amend the Act for the Abolition of Slavery in the British Colonies [11th April 1838]” – 10 pages
-- 1838 Parliamentary Act -- “An Act for the better and more effectually carrying into effect the Treaties and conventions made with Foreign Powers for suppressing the Slave Trade [27th July 1838]” – 3 pages
-- 1838 Parliamentary Act -- “An Act for carrying into effect a Convention of Accession of the Hans Towns to Two Conventions with the King of the French, for suppressing the Slave Trade [27th July 1838]”
-- 1838 Parliamentary Act -- “An Act to carry into effect an additional Article to a Treaty with Sweden relative to the Slave Trade [27th July 1838]”
-- 1838 Parliamentary Act -- “An Act for carrying into effect an additional Article to a Treaty with the Netherlands relating to the Slave Trade [27th July 1838]” – 6 pages
-- 1838 Parliamentary Act -- “An Act for carrying into effect a Convention of Accession of the Duke of Tuscany to Two conventions with the King of the French for suppressing the Slave Trade [10th august 1838]
-- 1838 Parliamentary Act -- “An Act for carrying into effect a Convention of Accession of the King of the Two Sicilies to Two Conventions with the King of the French for suppressing the Slave Trade [10th August 1838]” – 7 pages
-- 1848 Parliamentary Act -- “An Act for carrying into effect the Treaty between Her Majesty and the Republic of the Equator for the Abolition of the Traffic in Slaves [4th September 1848]” – 26 pages.
-- 1849 Parliamentary Act -- “An Act for carrying into effect the Agreement between Her Majesty and the Imam of Muscat for the more effectual Suppression of the Slave Trade [5th September 1848]” – 6 pages
-- 1849 Parliamentary Act -- “An Act for carrying into effect Engagements between Her Majesty and certain Arabian Chiefs in the Persian Gulf for the more effectual Suppression of the Slave Trade [1st August 1849]” – 8 pages
-- 1861 Parliamentary Act -- “An Act to apply out of the Consolidated Fund and the Surplus of the Ways and Means to the Service of 1861, and to appropriate supplies granted in this session of Parliament [August 6, 1861]  Includes mention of sums granted to David Livingstone (Expedition to the River Zambezi), Dr. Baikie (expedition to the River Niger), exploration of N.W. Australia, Bounties for Slaves, etc,. – 17 pages
-- 1869 Parliamentary Act -- “An Act to regulate and extend the Jurisdiction of Her Majesty’s Consul at Zanzibar in regard to vessels captured on suspicion of being engaged in the Slave Trade, and for other purposes relating thereto [9th August 1869]” – 3 pages
-- 1869 Parliamentary Act -- "Original and complete Act of Parliament (one page only) This Act repeals the recited earlier Act due to the cessation of the importation of slaves to Brazil from Africa.
-- 1873 Parliamentary Act -- “An Act for regulating and extending the Jurisdiction in matters connected with the Slave Trade of the Vice-Admiralty Court at Aden, and of Her Majesty’s Consuls under Treaties with the sovereigns of Zanzibar, Muscat, and Madagascar, and under future Treaties [5th August 1873]” – 5 pages

-- There are also other items of similar interest, like an Act to amend the Act for the Abolition of Slavery in the British Colonies (1838) and an Act to remove doubts as to the Rights of the liberated Africans in Sierra Leone (1853) and much more.


-- Journals of the House of Lords Volume LIV (January 23, 1821 - January 3, 1822) -- Covers many fascinating topics, including an Act going through between 2 and 10th July as follows: "An act for the appropriation of certain proceeds arising from the capture of vessels and cargoes of the property of the subjects of the kings of Spain Portugal and the Netherlands, taken and seized in violation of the conventions made with those States; and for granting Bounties for Slaves Captured in such vessels taken in the Prosecution of the Slave Trade". The Bill goes through various readings referenced in the book and was ultimately passed. It was called the "Captured Slaves Bill".

-- A priceless 4-page 1843 British Foreign Office Circular (see below) alerting British Consuls about the legal penalties placed upon British subjects still involved in the Slave Trade. This absolutely rare document is personally handwritten and signed by Lord Aberdeen, who later became Prime Minister of Great Britain (1852-1855). Lord Aberdeen wrote this while he was the British Consul at Trieste, Italy.
-- 1858 letter handwritten by Lord Aberdeen stating that he would not attend Queen Victoria's State Ball at Buckingham Palace because of his poor health. He died within the year.
-- Engraved image of Lord Aberdeen.

-- Rare 1830 edition of the "Abolition of the African Slave-Trade", By the British Parliament. Abridged from Thomas Clarkson. Together with a Brief View of the Present State of the Slave-Trade and of Slavery. Volume I (Only). Augusta: Published by P.A. Brinsmade, At the Depository of Kennebec Co., Sunday School Union. 227 pages. 3 3/4" x 6". The book is hardbound cloth-backed boards with leather spine. The spine has gilt lettering. The book is complete and intact. The interior is clean. It has wear at the extremities. It has chipping and wear at the spine leather and an ex-library sticker. The front board and end page is detached.

-- Three rare First Edition books (1855, 1857, 1868) on the British Slave Trade presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of Her Majesty -- with reports from Africa, Zanzibar, Portugal, Spain, Egypt, Brazil, Madagascar, France, The United States, Turkey, Sardinia and Tripoli -- providing a fascinating window into the 19th Century perceptions of slavery and the slave trades. Printed by Harrison & Sons, London. Includes special correspondence from Consul Charles Livingstone (Brother of David) on tribal slave dealers. Exquisite marbled leather covers.

--  The Map of Africa by Treaty, by Sir Edward Hertslet, Librarian of the Foreign Office. This book was printed for His Majesty's Stationery Office by Harrison and Sons, St. Martin's Lane, London, in 1909, and is Volume One. Original hardbound book on the various treaties establishing British colonies on the African continent, published more than 97 years ago. This volume describes British colonies, protectorates, and possessions in Africa. It includes the text of numerous treaties establishing boundary lines and other administrative details, organized in three major sections: i. British West Africa  ii. British South and Central Africa iii. British East Africa -- There are six fold-out maps, bound into the text to illustrate terms of the various treaties. In addition to the maps, there are more than 400 pages of text, detailing the actual language of the different treaties between Great Britain and the various chiefs and potentates of the African nations. And here is an excerpt from the 1861 cession to Great Britain of the port and island of Lagos, Nigeria: Pension to be paid to King Docemo  "In consideration of the the cession...the Representatives of the Queen of Great Britain do promise, subject to the approval of her Majesty, that Docemo shall receive an annual pension from the Queen of Great Britain equal to the net revenue hitherto annually received by him; such pension to be paid at such periods and in such modes as may hereafter be determined."  By an Additional Article to the above Treaty, dated 18th February, 1862, it was agreed that King Docemo should receive as a pension from the British Government 1,200 bags of cowries yearly, as equal to his net revenue, provided he did not break any of the the Articles of that Treaty, and resigned all claim upon former farmers of his revenue. Hertslet's text tells the story of Africa's partition in formal detail, and this volume is a valuable historical resource. The book was originally published in 1894, and this volume is the 1909 edition, with revisions by R.W. Brant and H.L. Sherwood. The overall size of the book is 10" x 6 1/2".



  36. -- Absolutely rare unrecorded 1689 Handwritten Manuscript admonition asserting England's dominion over colonial American trade [William III - King of England]. WE GREET YOU WELL ... from the King of England to ‘OUR PLANTACIONS’ (sic) OF NEW ENGLAND. This is an extremely important original manuscript document pertaining to the history of colonial America concerning the issues that would eventually result in American Independence. It was a "Draught of a License for New England Concerning the Violating of the Plantacion Laws" -- carried to the "Committee of Councils" by Sir John Werden on September 18th, 1689. Three pages of text and one.

    Background and context: Immediately upon England’s deposition of James II in December of 1688, Boston merchants also seized and imprisoned Edmund Andros, the despotic royal governor of the ‘Dominion of New England’. The Dominion had been established in 1684 after England annulled various colonial charters in order to regulate


their internal policies to the benefit of the Crown. Each of the colonial components of the Dominion resumed their former independent colonial status (including free trade) after the ‘Glorious Revolution’ of 1688-89 which brought William to the throne. Upon his ascension in August 1689 King William III had written, ‘to the Government of Massachusetts Colony in New England’ in a letter, implicitly recognizing their intra-colonial autonomy. Nevertheless in this document dated September 1689, King William III reasserts control over New England’s trade, navigation and customs policies. He herein refers to the Navigation Laws as for ‘Our Revenue’. That very issue - precedent of colonial trade as royal ‘revenue’ - would prove a key rubbing point between the Colonies and Crown until the American Declaration of Independence. How did the contents of this document ultimately effect the African Slave Trade, especially in light of the Acts of Parliament mentioned above?
       On one hand (as stated herein) William’s decree refers to the New England provinces as they were severally restored to their pre-Dominion condition, calling them: “the Several Colonies and Provinces (of New England).” The singular ‘Dominion of New England’ was thereby confirmed as being officially terminated and reconstituted in their “Several” colonial distinctions (Massachusetts, Rhode Island, etc.) On the other hand, (and most interestingly) is the fact that this document at the same time also refers to New England again as ‘Our Territory and Dominion,’ which indicates that the post-Revolution Crown was asserting (for the first time!) its uniform “Dominion” right over American trade. In other worlds, England was restoring constitutional self-government in the American provinces, by declaring its “Dominion” rights divine right) over American commerce itself. This is a most remarkable document to have been issued in the very year of Britain’s Glorious Revolution! This previously unrecorded piece of Anglo-American diplomacy is therefore of extreme historic importance as the contents presents the astonishing constitutional genesis of the issues which would eventually erupt in the break of the colonies from the motherland.
       The document begins: ‘Whereas we are Informed that the several Laws Relating to Our Plantacons (sic) have been Lately Broken and Violated in Our Territory and Dominion of New England, to the Prejudice of our Revenue of Customs and the Trade and Navigation of this our Kingdom, Our will and pleasure is, That you Cause the said Laws to be Effectually observed and Executed according to the True Intent and Meaning thereof, within our Said Territory and Dominion of New England, and the Several Colonies and Provinces thereof". The document then lists several prior Acts of Navigation and Trade and features the regulating points pertaining to American commerce. The thrust of the earlier Acts of Navigation quoted enumerate the Plantation Trade restrictions which prevented Americans from freely exporting commodities such as tobacco sugar, wool, etc.
       Another astonishing fact is that this document predates the Navigation Acts passed by Parliament under William III by over six years! This unique document therefore defines the official Anglo/American revenue relationship for over six years - those most important years between the “Glorious Revolution” and the infamous British Acts of Trade which commenced in 1696 and ultimately drove America to Independence in 1776! Only one other such customs notice by William III is known (Andrews IV ‘England’s Commercial and Colonial Policy’, 1938, p. 148-49). Andrews locates only a 1697 entry which was issued following the newly enacted Anglo-American Navigation Acts. That, a retained copy, remains in the the House of Lords Manuscript collection. Its companion (now lost) was also ‘transmitted to the customs officials themselves, constituting a code of customs law for their guidance.’ Again, more significantly, this present document was issued years earlier for the like purpose during the year of the great constitutional revolutions in both England and America. Its contents are unrecorded,